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Traditional (univariate) analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data relies exclusively on the information contained in the time course of individual voxels. Multivariate analyses can take advantage of the information contained in activity patterns across space, from multiple voxels. Such analyses have the potential to greatly expand the amount of information(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies in human subjects using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are typically conducted by collecting data over extended time periods that contain many similar trials of a task. Here methods for acquiring fMRI data from single trials of a cognitive task are reported. In experiment one,(More)
How does voluntary attention to one attribute of a visual stimulus affect the neural processing of that stimulus? We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the attentional modulation of neural activity in the human homolog of the MT-MST complex, which is known to be involved in the processing of visual motion. Using a visual stimulus(More)
It has long been known that there is some degree of localisation of function in the human brain, as indicated by the effects of traumatic head injury. Work in the middle of the 20th century, notably the direct cortical stimulation of patients during neurosurgery, suggested that the degree and specificity of such localisation of function were far greater(More)
Alarm substances are airborne chemical signals, released by an individual into the environment, which communicate emotional stress between conspecifics. Here we tested whether humans, like other mammals, are able to detect emotional stress in others by chemosensory cues. Sweat samples collected from individuals undergoing an acute emotional stressor, with(More)
Brain activations associated with semantic processing of visual and auditory words were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For each form of word presentation, subjects performed two tasks: one semantic, and one nonsemantic. The semantic task was identical for both auditory and visual presentation: single words were presented(More)
This study identified the brain activations associated with auditory vigilance tasks, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We created auditory continuous performance tests (CPTs) in which a demanding task (working memory task) was made more difficult than a simple vigilance task by increasing working memory and interference filtering demands. Two(More)
The prefrontal and temporal networks subserving object working memory tasks in adults have been reported as immature in young children; yet children are adequately capable of performing such tasks. We investigated the basis of this apparent contradiction using a complex object working memory task, a Categorical n-back (CN-BT). We examined whether the neural(More)
Following Munsell's bisection procedure [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 394 (1933)], we established a nine-step gray scale in which each step is an equal increment in lightness. We calculated retinal illuminances after intraocular scatter by using the point-spread function of Vos et al. [Vision Res. 16, 215-219 (1976)]. After this correction for intraocular scatter,(More)