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Choroidal osteomas caused visual symptoms in four healthy young women. A positive 32P test led to enucleation and histopathologic confirmation of the diagnosis in one patient. The characteristic ophthalmoscopic findings in these patients included the following: (1) slightly and irregularly elevated, yellow-white, juxtapapillary, choroidal tumor and(More)
We consider two seemingly very different self-assembly processes: formation of viral capsids and crystallization of sticky disks. At low temperatures, assembly is ineffective, since there are many metastable disordered states, which are a source of kinetic frustration. We use fluctuation-dissipation ratios to extract information about the degree of this(More)
Fifty-nine eyes underwent vitreous surgery (vitreolysis) with the Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. This was used to cut vitreoretinal bands and membranes in 16 eyes and to clear persistent vitreous opacities in 25 eyes. The use of appropriate specialized contact lenses and modification of the standard slit-lamp delivery system were essential for vitreous YAG laser(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate potential sources of bacterial contamination during intravitreal (IVT) injection procedures. METHODS Patients scheduled for IVT injection were asked to enroll in the study at the California Vitreoretinal Center (Menlo Park, CA) and the Vantage Eye Center (Salinas, CA) between October 2004 and April 2005. A total of 104 patients(More)
In self-assembly processes, kinetic trapping effects often hinder the formation of thermodynamically stable ordered states. In a model of viral capsid assembly and in the phase transformation of a lattice gas, we show how simulations in a self-assembling steady state can be used to identify two distinct mechanisms of kinetic trapping. We argue that one of(More)
The glass transition is the freezing of a liquid into a solid state without evident structural order. Although glassy materials are well characterized experimentally, the existence of a phase transition into the glass state remains controversial. Here, we present numerical evidence for the existence of a novel first-order dynamical phase transition in(More)
This review describes some important physical characteristics of the pathways (i.e., dynamical processes) by which molecular, nanoscale, and micrometer-scale self-assembly occurs. We highlight the existence of features of self-assembly pathways that are common to a wide range of physical systems, even though those systems may differ with respect to their(More)
We investigate the dynamics of kinetically constrained models of glass formers by analysing the statistics of trajectories of the dynamics, or histories, using large deviation function methods. We show that, in general, these models exhibit a first-order dynamical transition between active and inactive dynamical phases. We argue that the dynamical(More)
We use computer simulations to investigate self-assembly in a system of model chaperonin proteins, and in an Ising lattice gas. We discuss the mechanisms responsible for rapid and efficient assembly in these systems, and we use measurements of dynamical activity and assembly progress to compare their propensities for kinetic trapping. We use the analytic(More)