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BACKGROUND CD4 T lymphocytes accumulate in unstable plaque. The direct and indirect involvement of these T cells in tissue injury and plaque instability is not understood. METHODS AND RESULTS Gene profiling identified perforin, CD161, and members of the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors as being differentially expressed in CD4(+)CD28(null) T(More)
Between 1960 and 1973, a total of 104 patients at the Mayo Clinic had a diagnosis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy on the basis of clinical and angiographic criteria; these patients were followed up for 6 to 20 years. Twenty-one percent of the patients had a history of excessive consumption of alcohol, 20 percent had had a severe influenza-like syndrome(More)
BACKGROUND Mitral regurgitation due to flail leaflet is difficult to manage, because it is frequently asymptomatic yet carries a high risk of left ventricular dysfunction and because the natural history of the condition is poorly defined. METHODS We obtained clinical follow-up data through 1994-1995 in 229 patients with isolated mitral regurgitation due(More)
The effect on 7 year survival of having a normal or near normal coronary arteriogram was examined using data from the CASS registry of 21,487 consecutive coronary arteriograms taken in 15 clinical sites. Of these, 4,051 arteriograms were normal or near normal, and the patients had normal left ventricular function as judged by absence of a history of(More)
BACKGROUND Unstable atherosclerotic plaque typically contains an infiltrate of activated macrophages and activated T cells. This study established a functional profile of plaque-residing dendritic cells (DC) to examine whether they can function as Ag-presenting cells to facilitate in situ T-cell activation. METHODS Carotid artery plaque tissues were(More)
BACKGROUND Elderly patients are the fastest growing population in the US healthcare system and more patients aged 80 years and older require CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary revascularization than ever before. Because octogenarian patients have not been adequately represented in randomized trials comparing CABG and PCI, the most(More)
Forty-seven echocardiograms were obtained in 32 patients with bacterial endocarditis. Preexistent abnormalities were found in 14 patients. In five of them thought to have bacterial endocarditis on normal valves, echocardiography showed mitral stenosis (one), bicuspid aortic valve (two), and prolapse of mitral valve (two). Definite vegetations were seen in(More)
A long-term retrospective follow-up study was made of 120 patients (33 male, 87 female patients) with primary pulmonary hypertension--diagnosed by strict clinical and hemodynamic criteria--to obtain a better understanding of the natural history and possible pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. The mean age at diagnosis was 34 (3 to 64) years, but only 24(More)
BACKGROUND Monocytes are constitutively activated in unstable angina (UA), resulting in the production of IL-6 and the upregulation of acute phase proteins. Underlying mechanisms are not understood. To explore whether the production of the potent monocyte activator IFN-gamma is altered in UA, we compared cytokine production by T lymphocytes in patients with(More)