Robert L. Flewelling

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Previous research has noted that schools vary in substance use prevalence rates, but explanations for school differences have received little empirical attention. We assess variability across elementary schools (N = 36) in rates of early adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Characteristics of neighborhoods and schools potentially related to(More)
OBJECTIVES Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is the most widely used school-based drug use prevention program in the United States, but the findings of rigorous evaluations of its effectiveness have not been considered collectively. METHODS We used meta-analytic techniques to review eight methodologically rigorous DARE evaluations. Weighted(More)
A prior study identified a relationship between parental cigarette smoking and cognitive performance by adolescent children who did not smoke. That study was stimulated by the reasoning that environmental smoke might influence performance through oxygen deprivation. The present study, using longitudinal data from the Child Health and Development Studies(More)
Reducing youth access to commercial sources of alcohol is recognized as a necessary component of a comprehensive strategy to reduce underage drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, research on policy-relevant factors that may influence the commercial availability of alcohol to youth is limited. The present study examines characteristics of(More)
Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is the most prevalent school-based drug-use prevention program in the United States, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness. Results from a longitudinal evaluation of the program in 36 schools in Illinois provide only limited support for DARE's impact on student's drug use immediately following the(More)
Most research on the determinants of adolescent drug use has focused on predictors of either initiation or current use. Little attention has been given to the determinants of continued use of drugs after initiation, even though some researchers have found that the consequences of continued use are more serious than those associated with experimental or(More)
Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one's(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the association between college attendance and heavy alcohol use and factors that may underlie this relationship. METHOD Interview data collected from 12,993 young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed to determine if 4- or 2-year college(More)
PURPOSE This study explores the relationships between social, demographic, and behavioral characteristics and self-reported carrying of a weapon to school among middle school students. The results provide a statistical profile of youth most likely to bring weapons to school and help to identify characteristics that are only spuriously related to this(More)
The reliability of self-reported measures remains an important issue for research on adolescent alcohol and drug use. Many studies have concluded that adolescents' self-reports are valid and reliable, but few studies have excluded consistent nonusers from their reliability estimates, and no study has examined in detail the reliability of reported age at(More)