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Interleukin-1 (IL-1) interacts with cells through two types of binding molecules, IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1R I) and IL-1R II. The function of IL-1R II is unknown. In studies using monoclonal antibodies, IL-1 prolonged the in vitro survival of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) through IL-1R I, and IL-4 antagonized the action of IL-1 by inducing expression and(More)
To clarify the possible role of TNF and IL-1 in endotoxic shock, the lethality of rTNF (human and murine) and IL-1 in adrenalectomized mice was studied. Adrenalectomy, which has long been known to increase the susceptibility to endotoxin, rendered mice susceptible to TNF and IL-1 in terms of mortality. The lethality of endotoxin, TNF, or IL-1 was totally(More)
Traffic was studied upstream and downstream of a bottleneck that arose near a freeway lane drop near London, United Kingdom using archived high-resolution loop detector data. The bottleneck's location and mean discharge flows were reproducible from day to day. Further, it is shown that the bottleneck's discharge flow was about 10% lower than the prevailing(More)
Measuring the performance of a transit system is the first step toward efficient and proactive management. Since 1990, the use of performance measures for transportation planning and operations has gained a great deal of attention, particularly as transportation agencies are required to provide service with diminishing resources. In the past, it was very(More)
With increasing data availability due to intelligent transportation systems (ITS) deployments, methods for assessing and reporting traffic characteristics and conditions have begun to shift. While previous level of service (LOS) methods were developed for use with limited data, we now have the power to develop and test the use of actual performance(More)
Travel time estimation is of increasing importance to travelers and transportation professionals alike as congestion worsens in major urban areas. In fact, the reliability of travel time estimates on a given corridor may be more important for travelers, shippers, and transport managers than the travel time itself. This paper examines the uses of measured(More)
The arrival times of vehicles traveling southbound along a two-lane, bi-directional highway were recorded at eight neighboring locations upstream of a bottleneck caused by an oversaturated traffic signal. Cumulative curves constructed from these observations describe completely and in great detail the evolution of the resulting long queues. These queues(More)
In recent years, the techniques for screening transportation networks to identify high crash locations have become more sophisticated. Many transportation agencies, however, lack sufficient data, either in timeliness, completeness, or accuracy to implement many of the recent advances. This paper presents the results of an empirical analysis of screening and(More)