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been given different names, so that there are multiple Sodium Channels synonyms for many of sodium channel isoforms. To eliminate confusion resulting from the multiplicity of names, we propose a standardized nomenclature for Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical elements of voltage-gated sodium channels (Table 1). This nomen-action potential initiation(More)
We describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding the alpha subunit of a new voltage-sensitive sodium channel, microI, from rat skeletal muscle. The 1840 amino acid microI peptide is homologous to alpha subunits from rat brain, but, like the protein from eel electroplax, lacks an extended (approximately 200) amino acid segment between(More)
Mutations in the adult human skeletal muscle Na+ channel alpha subunit cause the disease paramyotonia congenita. Two paramyotonia congenita mutations, R1448H and R1448C, substitute histidine and cysteine for arginine in the S4 segment of domain 4. These mutations, expressed in a cell line, have only small effects on the activation of Na+ currents, but(More)
The alpha subunit of a voltage-sensitive sodium channel characteristic of denervated rat skeletal muscle was cloned and characterized. The cDNA encodes a 2018 amino acid protein (SkM2) that is homologous to other recently cloned sodium channels, including a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channel from rat skeletal muscle (SkM1). The SkM2 protein is no(More)
In muscle fibers from the rat diaphragm, 85% of the resting membrane ion conductance is attributable to Cl-. At 37 degree C and pH 7.0, GCl averages 2.11 mmho/cm2 while residual conductance largely due to K+ averages 0.34 mmho/cm2. The resting GCl exhibits a biphasic temperature dependence with a Q10 of 1.6 between 6 degree C and 25 degree C and a Q10 of(More)
In rats treated with high-dose corticosteroids, skeletal muscle that is denervated in vivo (steroid-denervated [S-D]) develops electrical inexcitability similar to that seen in patients with acute quadriplegic myopathy. In studies of affected muscles in vitro, the majority of S-D fibers failed to generate action potentials in response to intracellular(More)
The periodic paralyses are a group of autosomal dominant muscle diseases sharing a common feature of episodic paralysis. In one form, paramyotonia congenita (PC), the paralysis usually occurs with muscle cooling. Electrophysiologic studies of muscle from PC patients have revealed temperature-dependent alterations in sodium channel (NaCh) function. This(More)
Clinical and electrophysiological data have outlined a spectrum of similar yet distinct periodic paralyses, including potassium-sensitive (hyperkalemic periodic paralysis [HYPP]) and temperature-sensitive (paramyotonia congenita [PC]) forms. Recent work has revealed that these disorders result from allelic defects in the alpha-subunit of the adult, human(More)
The expression of mRNA encoding the TTX-sensitive (SkM1) and TTX-insensitive (SkM2) voltage-dependent sodium channels in adult skeletal muscle is independently regulated. In normal skeletal muscle, only the SkM1 message is expressed and the level varies with muscle fiber type. After surgical denervation, the steady-state SkM1 mRNA level declines(More)
The gene encoding the principal voltage-dependent sodium channel expressed in adult human skeletal muscle (SCN4A) has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of human hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and paramyotonia congenita. We report the cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of the normal product of this gene. The 7,823 nucleotide complementary(More)