Robert L. Atmar

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Real-time RT-PCR, combining amplification and detection of virus-specific amplicons, is a promising tool for norovirus detection in environmental or food samples such as shellfish. We developed a real-time RT-PCR assay based on one-step detection using single primer sets and probes for norovirus genogroups I and II. Seventy and seven RT-PCR units of(More)
Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in the United States. To determine the magnitude and duration of virus shedding in feces, we evaluated persons who had been experimentally infected with Norwalk virus. Of 16 persons, clinical gastroenteritis (watery diarrhea and/or vomiting) developed in 11; symptomatic illness lasted 1-2 days.(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and are recognized as the foremost cause of foodborne illness. Despite numerous efforts, routine cell cultures have failed to yield replicating NoV. This paper describes methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories. Cells (A549, AGS, Caco-2, CCD-18, CRFK, CR-PEC, Detroit(More)
Gastroenteritis is one of the most common illnesses of humans, and many different viruses have been causally associated with this disease. Of those enteric viruses that have been established as etiologic agents of gastroenteritis, only the human caliciviruses cannot be cultivated in vitro. The cloning of Norwalk virus and subsequently of other human(More)
Following a flooding event close to a shellfish production lagoon, 205 cases of gastroenteritis were linked to oyster consumption. Twelve stool samples from different individuals were collected. Analysis showed that eight samples were positive for multiple enteric viruses, and one stool sample had seven different enteric viruses. Analysis of shellfish(More)
BACKGROUND Safe and effective antiviral agents are needed to prevent infection with influenza A and B virus. Oseltamivir (GS4104), which can be administered orally, is the prodrug of GS4071, a potent and selective inhibitor of influenzavirus neuraminidases. We studied the use of oseltamivir for long-term prophylaxis against influenza in two(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Noroviruses causing gastroenteritis in humans have increasingly been described in both the scientific literature and the lay press. This review summarizes new information about where and why these viruses are detected as well as new developments to prevent or treat these infections. RECENT FINDINGS Noroviruses are highly infectious and(More)
We conducted an 8.5-year study examining enteric viruses at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Norovirus prevalence was 10.9%. Rotavirus prevalence decreased 64% after vaccine licensure. Noroviruses are the most common TCH enteropathogen and will likely eclipse rotaviruses as the most important US pediatric(More)
Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P(More)