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Epidemiological studies have reported associations between measures of size and weight at birth and disease risk in later life. Alteration in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to prenatal stress has been proposed as one underlying mechanism. The present study investigated in humans the association of prenatal(More)
Early institutional deprivation is a risk factor for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However not all individuals are affected. We tested the hypothesis that this heterogeneity is influenced by gene x environment (GxE) interaction and that genetic polymorphisms involved in dopamine neurotransmission moderate the effects of severe(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine the association between prenatal psychosocial stress exposure and subsequent prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory performance in human adults. Working memory performance was assessed using an item-recognition task under 10 mg hydrocortisone (cortisol) and placebo conditions in a sample of 32 healthy young(More)
The neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor NPSR represent a transmitter system critically involved in the modulation of anxiety and arousal in rodents. Initial human studies indicate that the T-allele of the functional NPSR gene (NPSR1) polymorphism (rs324981), which increases NPS potency at NPSR, is associated with anxiety-related phenotypes. Since stress(More)
The neuropeptide oxytocin has played an essential role in the regulation of social behavior and attachment throughout mammalian evolution. Because recent studies in humans have shown that oxytocin administration reduces stress responses and increases prosocial behavior, we investigated whether a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the(More)
Psychobiological investigations on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis depend on markers that adequately describe the activity of this system. There is evidence that the free cortisol response to awakening, proposed as a marker for the HPA axis, can be influenced by time of awakening. To further investigate this possible confounder, 24 shift(More)
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is vital for an organisms' response to physiological and psychological stress. Cortisol, secreted upon activation of the HPA axis, impacts on physiological systems throughout the organism. Responses to cortisol are influenced and modified by a number of factors, including corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG)(More)
OBJECTIVE A key regulator of serotonergic neurotransmission is the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and a common 5HTT gene promoter polymorphism, termed 5HTTLPR, is associated with phenotypes related to anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the serotonergic system influences hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, is related to(More)
Stress causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and results in the secretion of corticosteroids, which facilitate behavioral adaptation and promote the termination of the stress response. These actions exerted by cortisol are mediated by two brain corticosteroid receptor types: the high affinity mineralocorticoid (MR) and the low(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations in glucocorticoid (GC) signaling have been associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. Genetic variation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) might be one of the factors underlying susceptibility to stress related disease. METHODS We investigated 206 healthy subjects and assessed associations between four common GR gene(More)