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DNA base flipping is an important mechanism in molecular enzymology, but its study is limited by the lack of an accessible and reliable diagnostic technique. A series of crystalline complexes of a DNA methyltransferase, M.HhaI, and its cognate DNA, in which a fluorescent nucleobase analogue, 2-aminopurine (AP), occupies defined positions with respect the(More)
Restriction enzymes Ecl18kI, PspGI and EcoRII-C, specific for interrupted 5-bp target sequences, flip the central base pair of these sequences into their protein pockets to facilitate sequence recognition and adjust the DNA cleavage pattern. We have used time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of 2-aminopurine-labelled DNA in complex with each of these(More)
BACKGROUND Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. RESULTS The DNA sequences(More)
The opposing activities of 53BP1 and BRCA1 influence pathway choice in DNA double-strand-break repair. How BRCA1 counteracts the inhibitory effect of 53BP1 on DNA resection and homologous recombination is unknown. Here we identify the site of BRCA1-BARD1 required for priming ubiquitin transfer from E2∼ubiquitin and demonstrate that BRCA1-BARD1's ubiquitin(More)
We demonstrate an approach to optical DNA mapping, which enables near single-molecule characterization of whole bacteriophage genomes. Our approach uses a DNA methyltransferase enzyme to target labelling to specific sites and copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition to couple a fluorophore to the DNA. We achieve a labelling efficiency of ∼70% with an(More)
Deposition of linear DNA molecules is a critical step in many single-molecule genomic approaches including DNA mapping, fiber-FISH, and several emerging sequencing technologies. In the ideal situation, the DNA that is deposited for these experiments is absolutely linear and uniformly stretched, thereby enabling accurate distance measurements. However, this(More)
The formation and repair of myelin involves alterations in the molecular and physical properties of oligodendrocytes, and highly coordinated interactions with their target axons. Characterising the nature and timing of these events at the molecular and cellular levels illuminates the fundamental events underlying myelin formation, and provides opportunities(More)
Efficient communication among parallel processes is an important and integral part of designing scalable parallel programs. Yet many languages do not support methods for efficiently and easily expressing communication among subsets of these processes. This thesis describes a Process Groups library for the Charm parallel programming system, which allows user(More)
The radiolabeled leucine incorporation technique for quantifying rates of bacterial production has increased in popularity since its original description for bacterioplankton communities. Prior studies addressing incorporation conditions (e.g., substrate saturation) for bacterial communities in other habitats, such as decaying plant litter, have reported a(More)