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Family, twin, and adoption studies have documented a strong genetic basis for ADHD/HKD, but these studies do not identify specific genes linked to the disorder. Molecular genetic studies can identify allelic variations of specific genes that are functionally associated with ADHD/HKD, and dopamine genes have been the initial candidates based on the site of(More)
An association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5 and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated and replicated by multiple investigators. A specific allele [the 7-repeat of a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3] has been proposed as an etiological factor in attentional(More)
Associations have been reported of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both the personality trait of novelty seeking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The increased prevalence of the 7R allele in ADHD probands is consistent with the common variant-common disorder hypothesis, which proposes that the(More)
There is an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the population prevalence of the 7R allele varies considerably across ethnicity and is very low in Asians. To test whether this 7R allele/ADHD association still held in a Chinese clinical sample,(More)
Human chromosome 16 features one of the highest levels of segmentally duplicated sequence among the human autosomes. We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9% of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein-coding genes confirmed by 1,670 aligned transcripts, 19 transfer RNA genes, 341(More)
The sequence d(GGGGTTTTGGGG) from the 3' overhang of the Oxytricha telomere has been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure solved to 2.5 A resolution. The oligonucleotide forms hairpins, two of which join to make a four-stranded helical structure with the loops containing four thymine residues at either end. The guanine residues are held together(More)
We have identified a 26.5 kb gene-rich duplication shared by human Xq28 and 16p11.1. Complete comparative sequence analysis of cosmids from both loci has revealed identical Xq28 and 16p11.1 genomic structures for both the human creatine transporter gene (SLC6A8) and five exons of the CDM gene (DXS1357E). Overall nucleotide similarity within the duplication(More)
BACKGROUND Recent molecular genetics studies showed significant associations between dopamine-related genes (including genes for dopamine receptors, transporters, and degradation) and working memory, but little is known about the role of genes for dopamine modulation, such as those related to neurotensin (NT), in working memory. A recent animal study has(More)
Genomic surveys in humans identify a large amount of recent positive selection. Using the 3.9-million HapMap SNP dataset, we found that selection has accelerated greatly during the last 40,000 years. We tested the null hypothesis that the observed age distribution of recent positively selected linkage blocks is consistent with a constant rate of adaptive(More)