Robert K. D. Peterson

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West Nile virus (WNV) has been a major public health concern in North America since 1999, when the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in New York City. As a result of this ongoing disease outbreak, management of mosquitoes that vector WNV throughout the United States and Canada has necessitated using insecticides in areas where they(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) has been a concern for people across the United States since the disease was initially observed in the summer of 1999. Since 1999, WNV has caused the largest arboviral encephalitis epidemic in US history. Vector control management programs have been intensively implemented to control mosquitoes that carry WNV. Our deterministic(More)
Quantitative risk assessment affords an objective approach for assessing ecological risk from crops produced using biotechnology. Ecological risk assessment for plant-incorporated insecticidal proteins necessitates consideration of risks to nontarget insects when species-speciÞc hazard information may be lacking. Screening-level risk assessment methods(More)
Despite the demonstrated ability of bed nets that have been factory-impregnated with long-lasting insecticides (LLINs) to protect people from malaria and despite the ambitious plans for their widespread use, the health risks from the LLINs themselves have not been adequately investigated and reported in the peer-reviewed science literature. Here, we use a(More)
A critical first step for environmental risk assessment is problem formulation to identify environmental entities of concern and determinants of exposure that place these entities at risk. A conservative screening level approach was used to evaluate the potential risk to sensitive aquatic species from maize-expressed Cry1A(b) protein occurring in a(More)
Successful biological control of invasive weeds with specialist herbivorous insects is predicated on the assumption that the injury stresses the weeds sufÞciently to cause reductions in individual Þtness. Because plant gas exchange directly impacts growth and Þtness, characterizing how injury affects these primary processes may provide a key indicator of(More)
To date, eight exotic toadXax-feeding insect species have been accidentally or intentionally introduced to North America. Reports on their establishment and impact have been recorded for more than 60 years. Environmental risks linked to biological control of toadXax were identiWed in terms of host resources and undesirable impacts on the target species(More)
In 2005, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurred in Sacramento County, California; 163 human cases were reported. In response to WNV surveillance indicating increased WNV activity, the Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District conducted an emergency aerial spray. We determined the economic impact of the outbreak, including the(More)
The production of vaccines in transgenic plants was first proposed in 1990 however no product has yet reached commercialization. There are several risks during the production and delivery stages of this technology, with potential impact on the environment and on human health. Risks to the environment include gene transfer and exposure to antigens or(More)