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The crystal structure of human cystatin C, a protein with amyloidogenic properties and a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, reveals how the protein refolds to produce very tight two-fold symmetric dimers while retaining the secondary structure of the monomeric form. The dimerization occurs through three-dimensional domain swapping, a mechanism for(More)
Amyloidogenic proteins like cystatin C and prion proteins have been shown to form dimers by exchange of subdomains of the monomeric proteins. This process, called "three-dimensional domain swapping," has also been suggested to play a part in the generation of amyloid fibrils. One variant of cystatin C, L68Q cystatin C, is highly amyloidogenic, and persons(More)
Oligomerization of human cystatin C (HCC) leads to amyloid deposits in brain arteries, and this process is greatly accelerated with a naturally occurring L68Q variant. The crystal structures of N-truncated and full-length HCC (cubic form) showed dimer formation via three-dimensional (3D) domain swapping, and this observation has led to the suggestion that(More)
The three-dimensional structure of two polymorphs of a ZLFG-CH2-papain covalent complex has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structures indicate that: (i) the methylene carbon atom of the inhibitor is covalently bound to the Sgamma atom of Cys25 of papain; (ii) the hydrophobic S2 pocket formed by Pro68, Val133, Val157, and Asp158 is occupied by(More)
Tubulin proteostasis is regulated by a group of molecular chaperones termed tubulin cofactors (TBC). Whereas tubulin heterodimer formation is well-characterized biochemically, its dissociation pathway is not clearly understood. Here, we carried out biochemical assays to dissect the role of the human TBCE and TBCB chaperones in α-tubulin-β-tubulin(More)
Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac(More)
Human cystatin C (HCC) inhibits papain-like cysteine proteases by a binding epitope composed of two beta-hairpin loops and the N-terminal segment. HCC is found in all body fluids and is present at a particularly high level in the cerebrospinal fluid. Oligomerization of HCC leads to amyloid deposits in brain arteries at advanced age but this pathological(More)
L-Asparaginase II from Escherichia coli with an Asp90Glu mutation in the active site has been crystallized in five polymorphic forms. Crystals of all polymorphs suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of form I belong to the monoclinic system (space group C2), have unit-cell parameters a = 73.1, b =(More)
Cysteine proteases (CPs) are responsible for many biochemical processes occurring in living organisms and they have been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases that involve abnormal protein turnover. The activity of CPs is regulated among others by their specific inhibitors: cystatins. The main aim of this review is to discuss the(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health threat caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). It is further fueled by the HIV pandemic and by increasing incidences of multidrug resistant Mtb-strains. Rv2827c, a hypothetical protein from Mtb, has been implicated in the survival of Mtb in the macrophages of the host. The three-dimensional structure of Rv2827c(More)