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Most amphiphiles in biological membranes including phospholipids, steroids, and membrane proteins are insoluble amphiphiles and would form liquid crystals or insoluble precipitates alone in aqueous media. Detergents are soluble amphiphiles and above a critical concentration and temperature form micelles of various sizes and shapes. Much of the recent(More)
Glycophorin A, the major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte, consists of a NH2-terminal carbohydrate-rich region exposed to the outside, a hydrophobic region which forms a transmembrane bridge, and a COOH-terminal hydrophilic region extending into the cytoplasm. With the aim of further defining the membrane-embedded region, the protein has been(More)
Mixed micelle formation of the polydisperse nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 as well as its homogeneous analogue, p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenoxynonaoxyethylene glycol (OPE-9), with bovine brain sphingomyelin or dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine has been characterized by column chromatography on 6% agarose. At 40 degrees C, mixtures of OPE-9 and either(More)
Photoactivable carbene precursors, aryl diazirines and trifluorodiazopropionates, were incorporated synthetically into the omega-positions of fatty acids, which were used to synthesize phospholipids. Extensive intermolecular C--H insertion reactions were demonstrated by photolysis of liposomes prepared from the above phospholipids. Structural analysis of(More)
The synthesis and high-pressure liquid chromatographic purification of the homogenous nonionic surfactant p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenoxynonaoxyethylene glycol (OPE-9) in quantities suitable for membrane solubilization studies is reported. Micelles of OPE-9 and mixed micelles of OPE-9 with dimyristoyl and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine as well as(More)
Many integral membrane enzymes require for their activity interactions with the polar headgroups of phospholipids, in addition to the hydrophobic interactions within the lipid bilayer. The interactions with the polar headgroups may have preferential or absolute specificity. To study such interactions, phospholipids have been synthesized which carry(More)