Robert J Wilkinson

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Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Efforts to control it are hampered by difficulties with diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Most people infected with M. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic, termed latent TB, with a 10% lifetime risk of developing active TB disease.(More)
BACKGROUND Susceptibility to disease after infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by environmental and host genetic factors. Vitamin D metabolism leads to activation of macrophages and restricts the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. This effect may be influenced by polymorphisms at three sites in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. We(More)
There are 9 million cases of active tuberculosis reported annually; however, an estimated one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains asymptomatic. Of these latent individuals, only 5-10% will develop active tuberculosis disease in their lifetime. CD4(+) T cells, as well as the cytokines IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF,(More)
Tuberculous meningitis causes substantial mortality and morbidity in children and adults. More research is urgently needed to better understand the pathogenesis of disease and to improve its clinical management and outcome. A major stumbling block is the absence of standardised diagnostic criteria. The different case definitions used in various studies(More)
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has emerged as an important early complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, especially in patients with tuberculosis. However, there are no consensus case definitions for IRIS or tuberculosis-associated IRIS. Moreover, previously proposed case definitions are not readily(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D was used to treat tuberculosis in the pre-antibiotic era, and its metabolites induce antimycobacterial immunity in vitro. Clinical trials investigating the effect of adjunctive vitamin D on sputum culture conversion are absent. METHODS We undertook a multicentre randomised controlled trial of adjunctive vitamin D in adults with sputum(More)
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-uninfected people in Europe, but it is not known whether such an association exists among HIV-infected people in subtropical Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether vitamin D deficiency was associated with susceptibility to active TB in(More)
We investigated whether the proinflammatory T cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are induced by human mycobacterial infection. Remarkably, >20% of specific cytokine-producing CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood of healthy, mycobacteria-exposed adults expressed IL-17 or IL-22. Specific IL-17- and IL-22-producing CD4(+) T cells were distinct from each other and(More)
Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is improving worldwide. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common complication of ART initiation. In this review, we provide an overview of clinical and epidemiological features of HIV-associated IRIS, current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, available therapy, and preventive(More)
RATIONALE Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment. OBJECTIVE To compare the ability of the T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Abingdon, UK), QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis,(More)