Robert J. Trapp

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We find that extreme temperature and precipitation events are likely to respond substantially to anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse forcing and that fine-scale climate system modifiers are likely to play a critical role in the net response. At present, such events impact a wide variety of natural and human systems, and future changes in their frequency(More)
The primary objective of this study was to estimate the percentage of U.S. tornadoes that are spawned annually by squall lines and bow echoes, or quasi-linear convective systems (QLCSs). This was achieved by examining radar reflectivity images for every tornado event recorded during 1998–2000 in the contiguous United States. Based on these images, the type(More)
Although severe thunderstorms are one of the primary causes of catastrophic loss in the United States, their response to elevated greenhouse forcing has remained a prominent source of uncertainty for climate change impacts assessment. We find that the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5, global climate model ensemble indicates robust increases in(More)
The augmenting complexity of minimal invasive interventions requests a continuous improvement of technologies. Extended endoscopic procedures, e.g. laparoscopic-transanal sigmoidectomy or thoracoscopic esophagus dissection require difficult surgical manipulations like mobilisation, sceletonization as well as ligatures and sutures. They are difficult to(More)
Trends in severe thunderstorms and the associated phenomena of tornadoes, hail, and damagingwinds have been difficult to determine because of themany uncertainties in the historical eyewitness-report-based record. The authors demonstrate how a synthetic record that is based on high-resolution numerical modeling may be immune to these uncertainties.(More)
Precise cutting combined with reliable coagulation of the margins of the lesion is an important requirement for dissection techniques in endoscopic surgery. These requirements are met by the two most common ancillary energy sources applied for endoscopic dissection today, electrosurgery and "thermal lasers", mostly the Nd:YAG. For the comparison of the(More)
The article discusses handling problems in endoscopic surgery and concepts for the augmentation of instrument dexterity. The authors present a kinematic concept for improved surgical tool positioning and orientation. Using a trunk mechanism it is possible to assure augmented dexterity and stiffness for endoscopic handling. The paper addresses the use of(More)
In minimal invasive surgery high sensory palpation of the organs is largely lost. It is the purpose of this work to recover tactile sensing for the surgeon. To achieve this goal, a new tactile optical pressure sensor has been developed which allows to display 64 measuring points on a 0.64 cm2 surface area with a digital resolution of 12 bits. The sensor has(More)