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— Malicious attacks against power systems are investigated , in which an adversary controls a set of meters and is able to alter the measurements from those meters. Two regimes of attacks are considered. The strong attack regime is where the adversary attacks a sufficient number of meters so that the network state becomes unobservable by the control center.(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To evaluate a new automated measure of cardiopulmonary coupling during sleep using a single-lead electrocardiographic signal. DESIGN Using training and test datasets of 35 polysomnograms each, we assessed the correlations of an electrocardiogram-based measure of cardiopulmonary interactions with respect to standard sleep staging, as well(More)
Bluetooth is a new promising local area wireless technology designed to enable voice and data communication among various electronic devices. We believe that Bluetooth networks will provide reliable, flexible and cost-efficient telecommunication support for the post-deregulation electric power systems. Though not specified in version 1.0 of the Bluetooth(More)
INTRODUCTION Enhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves using stage transition analysis to characterize sleep continuity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We analyzed(More)
— The problem of constructing malicious data attack of smart grid state estimation is considered together with countermeasures that detect the presence of such attacks. For the adversary, using a graph theoretic approach, an efficient algorithm with polynomial-time complexity is obtained for the design of unobservable malicious data attacks. When the(More)
Why do different species of birds start their dawn choruses at different times? We test the hypothesis that the times at which different species start singing at dawn are related to their visual capability at low light intensities. Birds with large eyes can achieve greater pupil diameters and hence, all other things being equal, greater visual sensitivity(More)
What makes a great leader? Why do some people appear to know instinctively how to inspire employees--bringing out their confidence, loyalty, and dedication--while others flounder again and again? No simple formula can explain how great leaders come to be, but Bennis and Thomas believe it has something to do with the ways people handle adversity. The(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy of added carbon dioxide as adjunctive therapy to positive airway pressure-refractory mixed obstructive and central sleep-disordered breathing, using a prototype device-the positive airway pressure gas modulator. DESIGN Open-label evaluation of low concentrations of carbon dioxide added to a positive airway pressure(More)
Data attacks on state estimation modify part of system measurements such that the tempered measurements cause incorrect system state estimates. Attack techniques proposed in the literature often require detailed knowledge of system parameters. Such information is difficult to acquire in practice. The subspace methods presented in this paper, on the other(More)