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— Malicious attacks against power systems are investigated , in which an adversary controls a set of meters and is able to alter the measurements from those meters. Two regimes of attacks are considered. The strong attack regime is where the adversary attacks a sufficient number of meters so that the network state becomes unobservable by the control center.(More)
Bluetooth is a new promising local area wireless technology designed to enable voice and data communication among various electronic devices. We believe that Bluetooth networks will provide reliable, flexible and cost-efficient telecommunication support for the post-deregulation electric power systems. Though not specified in version 1.0 of the Bluetooth(More)
The techniques of Structured Systems Analysis are compared with the Problem Statement Language (PSL) and a method of teaching which involves the best features of both is proposed and discussed. The development work being carried out at Bradford in developing a version of PSL suitable for use in the teaching environment is described.
— The problem of constructing malicious data attack of smart grid state estimation is considered together with countermeasures that detect the presence of such attacks. For the adversary, using a graph theoretic approach, an efficient algorithm with polynomial-time complexity is obtained for the design of unobservable malicious data attacks. When the(More)
INTRODUCTION Enhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves using stage transition analysis to characterize sleep continuity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We analyzed(More)
Why do different species of birds start their dawn choruses at different times? We test the hypothesis that the times at which different species start singing at dawn are related to their visual capability at low light intensities. Birds with large eyes can achieve greater pupil diameters and hence, all other things being equal, greater visual sensitivity(More)
—In order to design an efficient communication scheme and examine the efficiency of any networked control architecture in smart grid applications, we need to characterize statistically its information source, namely the power grid itself. Investigating the statistical properties of power grids has the immediate benefit of providing a natural simulation(More)
UNLABELLED SUBJECT OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of the wake-promoting drug modafinil on working memory and brain activation in the executive network, following a single night of sleep deprivation. DESIGN Randomized, placebo-controlled, 4-arm, double-blind evaluation of a single 200-mg dose of modafinil on working memory (1-, 2-, and 3-back)-related(More)
—At present, the power grid has tight control over its dispatchable generation capacity but a very coarse control on the demand. Energy consumers are shielded from making price-aware decisions, which degrades the efficiency of the market. This state of affairs tends to favor fossil fuel generation over renewable sources. Because of the technological(More)