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Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced gene expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, which correlates with reduced insulin sensitivity. Heat therapy, which activates HSP72, improves clinical parameters in these patients. Activation of several inflammatory signaling proteins such as c-jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor of kappaB kinase, and(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is implicated in mediating obesity and insulin resistance. Paradoxically, SCD1 converts saturated fatty acids, the lipid species implicated in mediating insulin resistance, to monounsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to assess the molecular mechanisms that implicate SCD1 in the aetiology(More)
Excess lipid accumulation resulting from an elevated supply of plasma fatty acids is linked to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and heart disease. The term 'lipotoxicity' was coined to describe how lipid accumulation leads to cellular dysfunction and death in non-adipose tissues including the heart, pancreas and liver. While lipotoxicity has been(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is regulated by growth factors to promote protein synthesis. In mammalian skeletal muscle, the Forkhead-O1 transcription factor (FOXO1) promotes catabolism by activating ubiquitin-protein ligases. Using C2C12 mouse myoblasts that stably express inducible FOXO1-ER fusion proteins and transgenic mice that specifically(More)
Fatty acids are an important ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes. To examine whether reduced plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability affects the mRNA content of proteins involved in fuel metabolism in vivo, the skeletal muscle mRNA content of various transcription(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS We compared metabolic gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and from well-matched healthy control subjects. We hypothesised that gene expression would be discordantly regulated when comparing the two groups. Our secondary aim was to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL6) infusion on(More)
There are multiple binding domains on the promoter region of the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene, including a trio of insulin responsive elements that are activated by the forkhead box class-O (FoxO1) winged helix transcription factor, which is known to be regulated by acute transforming retrovirus(More)
PURPOSE It is not known whether it is possible to repeatedly supercompensate muscle glycogen stores after exhaustive exercise bouts undertaken within several days. METHODS We evaluated the effect of repeated exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and triacylglycerol (IMTG) metabolism and exercise capacity in six well-trained subjects who completed(More)
Fatty acids are an important ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes. To examine whether reduced plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability affects the mRNA content of proteins involved in fuel metabolism in vivo, the skeletal muscle mRNA content of various transcription(More)
Chronic elevations in interleukin (IL)-6 have been associated with insulin resistance, but acute IL-6 administration can enhance insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to exogenously administer IL-6 to rats to elicit either chronic or repeated acute elevations in systemic IL-6. We hypothesized that a continuous elevation of IL-6 would inhibit glucose tolerance(More)