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Zombies are a popular figure in pop culture/entertainment and they are usually portrayed as being brought about through an outbreak or epidemic. Consequently, we model a zombie attack, using biological assumptions based on popular zombie movies. We introduce a basic model for zombie infection, determine equilibria and their stability, and illustrate the(More)
Over the past two decades, HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) has risen to high levels in the wealthier countries of the world, which are able to afford widespread treatment. We have gained insights into the evolution and transmission dynamics of ARV resistance by designing a biologically complex multistrain network model. With this model, we(More)
Most current candidate HIV vaccines seem to produce little protection against infection, but reduce viral load and slow the decline in CD4 lymphocyte numbers. Such disease-modifying vaccines could potentially provide important population-level benefits by reducing transmission, but could possibly also increase transmission. We address the following(More)
OBJECTIVES The following questions were addressed: would the introduction of vaginal microbicides substantially reduce the risk of female sex workers (FSWs) acquiring HIV? Which factor would it be most important to maximize, microbicide efficacy or microbicide use? What level of microbicide efficacy and use would be necessary to counterbalance a possible(More)
Governments have agreed to expand the global protected area network from 13% to 17% of the world's land surface by 2020 (Aichi target 11) and to prevent the further loss of known threatened species (Aichi target 12). These targets are interdependent, as protected areas can stem biodiversity loss when strategically located and effectively managed. However,(More)
Spatially explicit information on the financial costs of conservation actions can improve the ability of conservation planning to achieve ecological and economic objectives, but the magnitude of this improvement may depend on the accuracy of the cost estimates. Data on costs of conservation actions are inherently uncertain. For example, the cost of(More)
Rip-up and reroute strategies can be applied following use of conventional wiring algorithms to calculate paths for residual connections failed by preceding techniques. The removal of blocking wire to allow new path runs inevitably introduces new (reroute) wiring requirements. In this paper we address the performance implications of various rates of success(More)
We report the optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow, obtained 203 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB 060418, using a ring polarimeter on the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our robust (2sigma) upper limit on the percentage of polarization, less than 8%, coincides with the fireball deceleration time at the onset of the(More)
Parallel processing is being recognized as a practical way to achieve very high performance in logic simulation of large designs. This tutorial summarizes many of the basic methods employed, and estimates attainable throughput. Next, data structuring and processing factors are explored as they impact parallel simulation. Experience indicates that support(More)