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One of the most consistent genetic findings to have emerged from bipolar disorder genome wide association studies (GWAS) is with CACNA1C, a gene that codes for the α(1C) subunit of the Ca(v)1.2 voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (LTCC). Genetic variation in CACNA1C have also been associated with depression, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, as(More)
Over the past two decades, HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) has risen to high levels in the wealthier countries of the world, which are able to afford widespread treatment. We have gained insights into the evolution and transmission dynamics of ARV resistance by designing a biologically complex multistrain network model. With this model, we(More)
The adapter protein Grb10 binds to phosphotyrosine residues in insulin receptors via its C-terminal region and regulates insulin signaling. This study investigated Grb10 regulation of glucose uptake and the importance of the Grb10 N-terminal region using 3T3-L1 adipocytes overexpressing full-length (FL-Grb10) or N-terminally truncated Grb10 (BPS-SH2).(More)
Grb10-Interacting GYF Protein 2 (GIGYF2) was initially identified through its interaction with Grb10, an adapter protein that binds activated IGF-I and insulin receptors. The GIGYF2 gene maps to human chromosome 2q37 within a region linked to familial Parkinson's disease (PARK11 locus), and association of GIGYF2 mutations with Parkinson's disease has been(More)
Recommended by Graeme Wake Indoor residual spraying—spraying insecticide inside houses to kill mosquitoes—is an important method for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. We propose a mathematical model for both regular and non-fixed spraying, using impulsive differential equations. First, we determine the stability properties of the(More)
Mass-vaccination campaigns are an important strategy in the global fight against poliomyelitis and measles. The large-scale logistics required for these mass immunisation campaigns magnifies the need for research into the effectiveness and optimal deployment of pulse vaccination. In order to better understand this control strategy, we propose a mathematical(More)
The widespread impact of avian influenza viruses not only poses risks to birds, but also to humans. The viruses spread from birds to humans and from human to human In addition, mutation in the primary strain will increase the infectiousness of avian influenza. We developed a mathematical model of avian influenza for both bird and human populations. The(More)
This work reports on an approach to direct policy discovery (a form of reinforcement learning) using genetic programming (GP) for the 3 by 3 by 3 Rubik's Cube. Specifically, a synthesis of two approaches is proposed: 1) a previous group theoretic formulation is used to suggest a sequence of objectives for developing solutions to different stages of the(More)
Methamphetamine (MA), commonly known by the street name " tik " in South Africa, is a highly addictive stimulant whose production and abuse has increased dramatically in South Africa (4). Since its advent in 1893, in Japan, the abuse of " tik " remains a major global health and social problem (2). Its popularity stems from energy-promoting and(More)