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Reading Braille activates visual cortex in blind people [Burton et al., J Neurophysiol 2002;87:589-611; Sadato et al., Nature 1996;380:526-528; Sadato et al., Brain 1998;121:1213-1229]. Because learning Braille requires extensive training, we had sighted and blind people read raised block capital letters to determine whether all groups engage visual cortex(More)
1. In penetrations made into the upper bank of the lateral sulcus in two monkeys (Macaca mulatta), cells were isolated from the second somatosensory cortex (SII). During single-cell recordings, animals performed an active touch task in which they rubbed their fingertips over pairs of gratings differing in groove width and indicated which was the smoother(More)
Blind individuals show visual cortex activity during Braille reading. We examined whether such cross-modal activations reflect processing somatosensory stimuli independent of language by identifying cortical activity during a one-back vibrotactile matching task. Three groups (sighted, early-onset, and late-onset [>12 years] blind) detected whether paired(More)
Clinical and neuroimaging observations of the cortical network implicated in tactile attention have identified foci in parietal somatosensory, posterior parietal, and superior frontal locations. Tasks involving intentional hand-arm movements activate similar or nearby parietal and frontal foci. Visual spatial attention tasks and deliberate visuomotor(More)
Neuronal responses in somatosensory cortical areas 3b and 1-2 (S1) were recorded during an attention task involving cue directed selection of one of three simultaneous stimuli: dual sinewave shaped vibrotactile stimuli applied to mirror sites on both hands or a similarly timed auditory tone. The cued stimulus occurred with one of two equally probable(More)
We used positron emission tomography to study cortical regions mediating tactile attention. Cues selectively directed subjects to attend to the roughness or duration of contact with embossed gratings that rubbed against a single fingertip with controlled speed and force. The task required discriminating between paired gratings that differed in tactile(More)
This experiment explored the relationship between neural firing patterns in second somatosensory cortex (SII) and decisions about roughness of tactile gratings. Neural and behavioral data were acquired while monkeys made dichotomous roughness classifications of pairs of gratings that differed in groove width (1.07 vs. 1.90 and 1.42 vs. 2.53 mm). A(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine joint-position sense and kinesthesia in all extremities in participants with diplegic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN Survey of joint-position sense and kinesthesia differences between aged-matched controls and 2 groups with CP. SETTING University movement assessment laboratory. PARTICIPANTS Population-based sample of(More)
In blind, occipital cortex showed robust activation to nonvisual stimuli in many prior functional neuroimaging studies. The cognitive processes represented by these activations are not fully determined, although a verbal recognition memory role has been demonstrated. In congenitally blind and sighted (10 per group), we contrasted responses to a vibrotactile(More)
This study quantified human short-term-memory decay functions for delayed vibrotactile frequency discriminations. Subjects indicated which of two successive intervals contained the higher or lower frequency of a pair separated by delay periods of 0.5-30 sec. Performance decreased as a function of length of delay and was higher when delays were unfilled than(More)