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Reading Braille activates visual cortex in blind people [Burton et al., J Neurophysiol 2002;87:589-611; Sadato et al., Nature 1996;380:526-528; Sadato et al., Brain 1998;121:1213-1229]. Because learning Braille requires extensive training, we had sighted and blind people read raised block capital letters to determine whether all groups engage visual cortex(More)
Blind individuals show visual cortex activity during Braille reading. We examined whether such cross-modal activations reflect processing somatosensory stimuli independent of language by identifying cortical activity during a one-back vibrotactile matching task. Three groups (sighted, early-onset, and late-onset [>12 years] blind) detected whether paired(More)
Clinical and neuroimaging observations of the cortical network implicated in tactile attention have identified foci in parietal somatosensory, posterior parietal, and superior frontal locations. Tasks involving intentional hand-arm movements activate similar or nearby parietal and frontal foci. Visual spatial attention tasks and deliberate visuomotor(More)
1. In penetrations made into the upper bank of the lateral sulcus in two monkeys (Macaca mulatta), cells were isolated from the second somatosensory cortex (SII). During single-cell recordings, animals performed an active touch task in which they rubbed their fingertips over pairs of gratings differing in groove width and indicated which was the smoother(More)
1. In a descriptive survey of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) responses during active touch, two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to stroke their fingertips over pairs of gratings with constant ridge (250 microns) and varying groove (500-2,900 microns) width (roughness) and to identify the smoother (smaller groove). Speed of hand motion and applied(More)
Neuronal responses in somatosensory cortical areas 3b and 1-2 (S1) were recorded during an attention task involving cue directed selection of one of three simultaneous stimuli: dual sinewave shaped vibrotactile stimuli applied to mirror sites on both hands or a similarly timed auditory tone. The cued stimulus occurred with one of two equally probable(More)
We used fMRI to identify brain areas activated during tactile attention tasks. Participants detected the interval containing target stimulation of higher vibrotactile frequency or longer duration. Attributes were selectively or neutrally cued. A control backwards-counting task included concurrent, but irrelevant corresponding vibrotactile stimulation. Group(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine joint-position sense and kinesthesia in all extremities in participants with diplegic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN Survey of joint-position sense and kinesthesia differences between aged-matched controls and 2 groups with CP. SETTING University movement assessment laboratory. PARTICIPANTS Population-based sample of(More)
This experiment explored the relationship between neural firing patterns in second somatosensory cortex (SII) and decisions about roughness of tactile gratings. Neural and behavioral data were acquired while monkeys made dichotomous roughness classifications of pairs of gratings that differed in groove width (1.07 vs. 1.90 and 1.42 vs. 2.53 mm). A(More)
Human and monkey performance on discriminating tactile gratings revealed comparable cross-species Weber functions. Neural data obtained while monkeys performed discriminations revealed some matching of neural and psychometric functions. Nearly constant firing rate differences occurred at discrimination threshold for unequal groove widths. Firing rate(More)