Robert J. Sampson

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It is hypothesized that collective efficacy, defined as social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good, is linked to reduced violence. This hypothesis was tested on a 1995 survey of 8782 residents of 343 neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. Multilevel analyses showed that a measure of collective(More)
This study links police records, vital statistics, census data, and an original survey of 8,872 Chicago residents to assess an integrated theoretical perspective on neighborhood-level variations in homicide. We highlight two neglected dimensions of neighborhood context – social processes and spatial interdependence. Structural characteristics in 1990 and(More)
once again has assumed priority in the social sciences.1 The most visible inquiry has been played out in urban sociology and criminology. According to the “broken windows” theory of urban decline (Wilson and Kelling 1982), minor forms of public disorder lead to serious crime and a downward spiral of urban decay (Kelling and Coles 1996). The presumed reason(More)
We analyzed key individual, family, and neighborhood factors to assess competing hypotheses regarding racial/ethnic gaps in perpetrating violence. From 1995 to 2002, we collected 3 waves of data on 2974 participants aged 8 [corrected] to 25 years living in 180 Chicago neighborhoods, augmented by a separate community survey of 8782 Chicago residents. The(More)
Health-related problems are strongly associated with the social characteristics of communities and neighborhoods. We need to treat community contexts as important units of analysis in their own right, which in turn calls for new measurement strategies as well as theoretical frameworks that do not simply treat the neighborhood as a "trait" of the individual.(More)
Linking recently collected data to form what is arguably the longest longitudinal study of crime to date, this paper examines trajectories of offending over the life course of delinquent boys followed from ages 7 to 70. We assess whether there is a distinct offender group whose rates of crime remain stable with increasing age, and whether individual(More)
The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing experiment has proven to be an important intervention not just in the lives of the poor, but in social science theories of neighborhood effects. Competing causal claims have been the subject of considerable disagreement, culminating in the debate between Clampet-Lundquist and Massey (2008) and Ludwig et al. (2008).(More)
Although marriage is associated with a plethora of adult outcomes, its causal status remains controversial in the absence of experimental evidence. We address this problem by introducing a counterfactual lifecourse approach that applies inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to yearly longitudinal data on marriage, crime, and shared covariates in(More)