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Nature's engineering of wood through genetics, stand conditions , and environment creates wide variability in wood as a material, which in turn introduces difficulties in wood processing and utilization. Manufacturers sometimes find it difficult to consistently process wood into quality products because of its wide range of properties. The primary objective(More)
The objective of this research was to demonstrate the use of personal computer technology in transverse vibration nondestructive testing techniques. A laptop personal computer with expansion unit was coupled to a 100-lb (45.4-kg) load cell via an analog-to-digital converter. This system was used to collect data from simply-supported lumber specimens(More)
The discovery of millions of PIWI-interacting RNAs revealed a fascinating and unanticipated dimension of biology. The PIWI-piRNA pathway has been commonly perceived as germline-specific, even though the somatic function of PIWI proteins was documented when they were first discovered. Recent studies have begun to re-explore this pathway in somatic cells in(More)
PURPOSE Senescent Ccl2(-/-) mice are reported to develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are also found to be associated with AMD. The authors generated Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice to establish a more characteristic and reproducible AMD model. METHODS Single(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Senescent Ccl2-/- mice develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are associated with AMD. METHODS We generated Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- [double-knockout (DKO)] mice and evaluated the eyes using fundoscopy routine histology, immunochemistry,(More)
PURPOSE Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial blinding disease in the elderly. LOC387715 harbors a single-nucleotide polymorphism that has an association with AMD. This study was conducted to confirm the association between LOC387715 and AMD and to refine estimates of the impact of this gene variation in using samples from three(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess combined effects on the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by the LOC387715 polymorphism, smoking, and inflammatory or hemostatic factors. DESIGN Population-based case-control study. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred seventy-eight AMD cases (224 early, 54 late) and 557 controls matched for age, gender, and smoking, drawn from the(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in the USA. Although the treatment of AMD has evolved to include laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, surgical macular translocation and antiangiogenesis agents, treatment options for advanced AMD are limited. Furthermore, the dry form of AMD, albeit less(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t We present a detailed semantics for linguistic spatial expressions supportive of computational processing that draws substantially on the principles and tools of ontological engineering and formal ontology. We cover language concerned with space, actions in space and spatial relationships and develop an ontological(More)
This paper describes the general concept of Route Graphs, to be used for navigation by various agents in a variety of scenarios. We introduce the concept of an ontology and describe the modelling of general graphs as an example. This approach is then applied to define a " lightweight " ontology of Route Graphs in an indoors environment, giving at first just(More)