Robert J. Pawlak

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Although neuronal stress circuits have been identified, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the stress-induced neuronal plasticity leading to fear and anxiety. Here we found that the serine protease tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) was upregulated in the central and medial amygdala by acute restraint stress, where it promoted stress-related(More)
A minority of individuals experiencing traumatic events develop anxiety disorders. The reason for the lack of correspondence between the prevalence of exposure to psychological trauma and the development of anxiety is unknown. Extracellular proteolysis contributes to fear-associated responses by facilitating neuronal plasticity at the neuron-matrix(More)
The amygdala, which exerts a regulatory influence on the stress response, is itself affected by stress. It has been reported that the serine protease tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), a key mediator of spine plasticity, is required for stress-induced facilitation of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, tPA is also involved in stress-induced activation of(More)
Repeated stress can impair function in the hippocampus, a brain structure essential for learning and memory. Although behavioral evidence suggests that severe stress triggers cognitive impairment, as seen in major depression or posttraumatic stress disorder, little is known about the molecular mediators of these functional deficits in the hippocampus. We(More)
Psychological stress causes adaptive changes in the nervous system directed toward maintaining homoeostasis. These biochemical and structural mechanisms regulate animal behavior, and their malfunction may result in various forms of affective disorders. Here we found that the lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) gene, encoding a secreted protein of unknown neuronal function,(More)
Accumulation of the amyloid(A ) peptide depends on both its generation and clearance. To better define clearance pathways, we have evaluated the role of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)–plasmin system in A degradation in vivo. In two different mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, chronically elevated A peptide in the brain correlates with the(More)
Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol withdrawal (EW). Here we show that tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease implicated in neuronal plasticity and seizures, is induced in the limbic system by chronic ethanol consumption, temporally coinciding with up-regulation of NMDA(More)
Chronic ethanol abuse leads to degenerative changes in the hippocampus, which may result in subsequent cognitive impairment. Since the hippocampus retains the ability to produce neurons through adulthood, in the present study we examined if ethanol-induced neuronal loss could be counterbalanced by cell proliferation in mouse dentate gyrus (DG). A total of(More)
Stress-induced plasticity in the brain requires a precisely orchestrated sequence of cellular events involving novel as well as well known mediators. We have previously demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the amygdala promotes stress-induced synaptic plasticity and anxiety-like behavior. Here, we show that tPA activity in the amygdala is(More)
Clinical and experimental data have recently accumulated for antithrombotic action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-1s). We have shown previously that captopril (which contains a thiol group in the moiety) exerts more pronounced antithrombotic activity than does an equipotent dose of enalapril (the drug devoid of the thiol group). To clarify(More)