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Hotspots of high species diversity are a prominent feature of modern global biodiversity patterns. Fossil and molecular evidence is starting to reveal the history of these hotspots. There have been at least three marine biodiversity hotspots during the past 50 million years. They have moved across almost half the globe, with their timing and locations(More)
Understanding the historical dynamics of forest communities is a critical element for accurate prediction of their response to future change. Here, we examine evergreen rainforest distribution in the Sunda Shelf region at the last glacial maximum (LGM), using a spatially explicit model incorporating geographic, paleoclimatic, and geologic evidence. Results(More)
Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the SE Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic, and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) data sets to test which areas have been the(More)
Protozoan grazing is a major trophic pathway whereby the biomass re-enters the food web. Nonetheless, not all bacteria are digested by protozoa and the number known to evade digestion, resulting in their environmental augmentation, is increasing. We investigated the interactions of Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli(More)
In a recent analysis of the historical biogeography of Melastomataceae, Renner, Clausing, and Meyer (2001; American Journal of Botany 88(7): 1290-1300) rejected the hypothesis of a Gondwana origin. Using a fossil-calibrated chloroplast DNA (ndhF) phylogeny, they placed the early diversification of Melastomataceae in Laurasia at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary(More)
The marked biogeographic difference between western (Malay Peninsula and Sumatra) and eastern (Borneo) Sundaland is surprising given the long time that these areas have formed a single landmass. A dispersal barrier in the form of a dry savanna corridor during glacial maxima has been proposed to explain this disparity. However, the short duration of these(More)
Sedimentological and palynological investigations of Great Songkhla Lakes, east coast of the Malay-Thai Peninsula, Southeast Asia, reveal sedimentary sequences rich in palynomorph assemblages dominated by pollen of mangroves and freshwater swamps. Compared with other regions in Southeast Asia the assemblages are of relatively low diversity. Geochronological(More)
The Podocarpaceae comprises 18 genera and about 173 species of evergreen , coniferous trees and shrubs. It is the most successful gymnosperm family in angiosperm-dominated tropical forests (Brodribb, this volume). Podocarps are distributed mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, with populations also extending as far north as China and Japan and to Mexico and(More)
A long-path carbon dioxide laser amplifier, based on a coaxial radio frequency discharge gain medium combined with a Herriott cell folding system, is investigated as a predetection amplifier in a coherent laser radar system. The amplifier signal gain and noise characteristics are measured, and the signal-to-noise enhancement produced in a Doppler radar(More)
Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we(More)