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Acknowledgements We are indebted to too many people to list here for enlightening discussions of topics addressed in this paper. We would like to acknowledge with regard to issues in language assessment, and, for their comments on an earlier draft, the editor Mark Wilson and two anonymous referees. Abstract In educational assessment, we observe what(More)
Probability-based inference in complex networks of interdependent variables is an active topic in statistical research, spurred by such diverse applications as forecasting, pedigree analysis, troubleshooting, and medical diagnosis. This paper concerns the role of Bayesian inference networks for updating student models in intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs).(More)
Standard procedures for drawing inferences from complex samples do not apply when the variable of interest 9 cannot be observed directly, but must be inferred from the values of * secondary random variables that depend on 0 stochastically. Examples are examinee proficiency variables in item response theory models and class memberships in latent class(More)
Evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) is an approach to constructing educational assessments in terms of evidentiary arguments. This paper provides an introduction to the basic ideas of ECD, as well as some of the terminology and models that have been developed to implement the approach. In particular, it presents the high-level models of the Conceptual(More)
Persistent elements and relationships underlie the design and delivery of educational assessments, despite their widely varying purposes, contexts, and data types. One starting point for analyzing these relationships is the assessment as experienced by the examinee: 'What kinds of questions are on the test?,' 'Can I do them in any order?,' 'Which ones did I(More)
Acknowledgements We are grateful to John Norris and Lyle Bachman for comments on earlier versions of this paper, and to the staff and consultants of TOEFL for many stimulating and enlightening conversations over the years. Abstract Task-based language assessment (TBLA) grows from the observation that mastering the grammar and lexicon of a language is not(More)
on the project as an ETS summer intern during June and July. Our subject matter expert consultants were invaluable in working through the issues of standards, claims, and evidence that underlie the project, and in offering suggestions along the way for the prototype. They are ABSTRACT An active area in psychometric research is coordinated task design and(More)