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Acknowledgements We are indebted to too many people to list here for enlightening discussions of topics addressed in this paper. We would like to acknowledge with regard to issues in language assessment, and, for their comments on an earlier draft, the editor Mark Wilson and two anonymous referees. Abstract In educational assessment, we observe what(More)
Pursuit of efficient probability-based inference in complex networks of interdependent variables is an active topic in current statistical research, spurred by such diverse applications as forecasting, pedigree analysis, troubleshooting, and medical diagnosis. This paper concerns the potential role of Bayesian inference networks for updating student models(More)
Evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) is an approach to constructing educational assessments in terms of evidentiary arguments. This paper provides an introduction to the basic ideas of ECD, as well as some of the terminology and models that have been developed to implement the approach. In particular, it presents the high-level models of the Conceptual(More)
The views expressed here are those of the author and do not imply any official endorsement by any organizations funding this work. The findings and opinions expressed in this report do not reflect the position or policies of the Abstract Educational assessment concerns inference about students' knowledge, skills, and accomplishments. Because data are never(More)
Persistent elements and relationships underlie the design and delivery of educational assessments, despite their widely varying purposes, contexts, and data types. One starting point for analyzing these relationships is the assessment as experienced by the examinee: 'What kinds of questions are on the test?,' 'Can I do them in any order?,' 'Which ones did I(More)
Acknowledgements We are grateful to John Norris and Lyle Bachman for comments on earlier versions of this paper, and to the staff and consultants of TOEFL for many stimulating and enlightening conversations over the years. Abstract Task-based language assessment (TBLA) grows from the observation that mastering the grammar and lexicon of a language is not(More)
on the project as an ETS summer intern during June and July. Our subject matter expert consultants were invaluable in working through the issues of standards, claims, and evidence that underlie the project, and in offering suggestions along the way for the prototype. They are ABSTRACT An active area in psychometric research is coordinated task design and(More)
A situated/sociocultural (SC) view of assessment " emphasizes questions about the quality of students' participation in activities of inquiry and sense-making, and considers assessment practices as integral components of the general systems of activity in which they occur " (Greeno, Collins, & Resnick, 1997, p. 36). This presentation addresses two issues.(More)