Robert J. Linhardt

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Crystal structures of heparin-derived tetra- and hexasaccharides complexed with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were determined at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.2 angstroms, respectively. The heparin structure may be approximated as a helical polymer with a disaccharide rotation of 174 degrees and a translation of 8.6 angstroms along the helix axis. Both(More)
Lignocellulose represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into biofuels and bio-based products. Unfortunately, lignocellulosic biomass is highly recalcitrant to biotransformation, both microbial and enzymatic, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into value-added products. As a result, effective(More)
Dengue virus is a human pathogen that has reemerged as an increasingly important public health threat. We found that the cellular receptor utilized by dengue envelope protein to bind to target cells is a highly sulfated type of heparan sulfate. Heparin, highly sulfated heparan sulfate, and the polysulfonate pharmaceutical Suramin effectively prevented(More)
The crystal structure of a dimeric 2:2:2 FGF:FGFR:heparin ternary complex at 3 A resolution has been determined. Within each 1:1 FGF:FGFR complex, heparin makes numerous contacts with both FGF and FGFR, thereby augmenting FGF-FGFR binding. Heparin also interacts with FGFR in the adjoining 1:1 FGF:FGFR complex to promote FGFR dimerization. The 6-O-sulfate(More)
Heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the family of glycosaminoglycans, has numerous important biological activities, associated with its interaction with diverse proteins. Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant drug based on its ability to accelerate the rate at which antithrombin inhibits serine proteases in the blood coagulation cascade.(More)
Unique among fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, -21, and -23 act in an endocrine fashion to regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis. These FGFs require the presence of Klotho/betaKlotho in their target tissues. Here, we present the crystal structures of FGF19 alone and FGF23 in complex with sucrose octasulfate,(More)
The conservation of positively charged residues in the N terminus of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2 suggests an interaction of the viral envelope with cell surface glycosaminoglycans. Using recombinant envelope glycoprotein E2 and virus-like particles as ligands for cellular binding, we demonstrate that cell surface heparan sulfate(More)
Two of the four human FGF8 splice isoforms, FGF8a and FGF8b, are expressed in the mid-hindbrain region during development. Although the only difference between these isoforms is the presence of an additional 11 amino acids at the N terminus of FGF8b, these isoforms possess remarkably different abilities to pattern the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. To(More)
Although interactions of proteins with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparin and heparan sulphate, are of great biological importance, structural requirements for protein-GAG binding have not been well-characterised. Ionic interactions are important in promoting protein-GAG binding. Polyelectrolyte theory suggests that much of the free energy of(More)
Heparin is an animal tissue extract that is widely used as an anticoagulant drug. A number of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), introduced in the past decade, are beginning to displace pharmaceutical (or compendial) grade heparins as clinical antithrombotic agents. This article describes the chemical properties of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin(More)