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Seven-transmembrane receptors, which constitute the largest, most ubiquitous and most versatile family of membrane receptors, are also the most common target of therapeutic drugs. Recent findings indicate that the classical models of G-protein coupling and activation of second-messenger-generating enzymes do not fully explain their remarkably diverse(More)
The transmission of extracellular signals to the interior of the cell is a function of plasma membrane receptors, of which the seven transmembrane receptor family is by far the largest and most versatile. Classically, these receptors stimulate heterotrimeric G proteins, which control rates of generation of diffusible second messengers and entry of ions at(More)
We have replaced the C-terminal portion of the third intracellular loop of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (residues 266-272) with the homologous region of the alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor. In a fashion analogous to the reciprocal mutations of the alpha 1B receptor previously described (Cotecchia, S., Exum, S., Caron, M. G., and Lefkowitz, R. J. (1990) Proc.(More)
The Ras-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by many receptors coupled to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) requires the activation of Src family tyrosine kinases. Stimulation of beta2 adrenergic receptors resulted in the assembly of a protein complex containing activated c-Src and the(More)
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) constitute a family of six mammalian serine/threonine protein kinases that phosphorylate agonist-bound, or activated, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as their primary substrates. GRK-mediated receptor phosphorylation rapidly initiates profound impairment of receptor signaling, or desensitization. This review(More)
Dopamine plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and D2 class dopamine receptors are the best-established target of antipsychotic drugs. Here we show that D2 class-receptor-mediated Akt regulation involves the formation of signaling complexes containing beta-arrestin 2, PP2A, and Akt. beta-arrestin 2 deficiency in mice results in reduction(More)
Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs; also known as G protein-coupled receptors) are the largest class of receptors in the human genome and are common targets for therapeutics. Originally identified as mediators of 7TMR desensitization, beta-arrestins (arrestin 2 and arrestin 3) are now recognized as true adaptor proteins that transduce signals to multiple(More)
The ability of morphine to alleviate pain is mediated through a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled heptahelical receptor (GPCR), the mu opioid receptor (muOR). The efficiency of GPCR signaling is tightly regulated and ultimately limited by the coordinated phosphorylation of the receptors by specific GPCR kinases and the(More)
Transgenic mice were created with cardiac-specific overexpression of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor. This resulted in increased basal myocardial adenylyl cyclase activity, enhanced atrial contractility, and increased left ventricular function in vivo; these parameters at baseline in the transgenic animals were equal to those observed in control animals(More)