Learn More
NMDA receptor expression on the plasma membrane and at synaptic sites is tightly regulated. We have recently shown that the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B has an endocytic motif contained within its C-terminus. We now identify this motif as a consensus tyrosine-based motif (YEKL) and demonstrate that this sequence binds directly to the medium chain of the AP-2(More)
The cuticle coats the aerial organs of land plants and is composed of a cutin matrix embedded and overlayed with waxes. The Arabidopsis CER3 gene is important for cuticular wax biosynthesis and was reported to correspond to At5g02310 encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we demonstrate that CER3 is not At5g02310 and instead corresponds to WAX2/YRE/FLP1(More)
Neu (c-erbB2) is a proto-oncogene product that encodes an epidermal growth factor-like receptor tyrosine kinase. Amplification of wild-type c-Neu and mutational activation of Neu (Neu T) have been implicated in oncogenic transformation of cultured fibroblasts and mammary tumorigenesis in vivo. Here, we examine the relationship between Neu tyrosine kinase(More)
Receptors for the vitamin folic acid are frequently overexpressed on epithelial cancer cells. To examine whether this overexpression might be exploited to specifically deliver liposome-encapsulated drug molecules in vitro, folate-targeted liposomes were prepared by incorporating 0.1 mol% of a folate-polyethyleneglycol-distearoylphatidylethanolamine(More)
Angiotensin II (AII) binds to specific G protein-coupled receptors and is mitogenic in adrenal, liver epithelial, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Since the cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit of the cyclin D1-dependent kinase (CD1K) required for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB), an essential and rate-limiting step in G1 phase(More)
The Albert Einstein Cancer Center (R.G.P., C.A., A.T.R., R.J.L.), Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology and Department of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology (J.E.S.), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461; and Center for Molecular Medicine (A.A.), and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University(More)
Expression of the fos family of transcription factors is stimulated by growth factors that induce quiescent cells to reenter the cell cycle, but the cellular targets of the Fos family that regulate cell cycle reentry have not been identified. To address this issue, mice that lack two members of the fos family, c-fos and fosB, were derived. The fosB-/-(More)
PURPOSE Liposomes co-encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER), and conjugated to transferrin (Tf-L-DOX/VER) were synthesized and evaluated in K562 leukemia cells. The design of this formulation was aimed at selective targeting of tumor cells, reducing cardiotoxicity of DOX and VER, as well as overcoming P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multidrug(More)
Free folic acid is believed to enter some cells by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis at membrane invaginations termed caveolae. Folate conjugated macromolecules also enter cells by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis, but their site of entry has never been conclusively identified. In this paper, we show that internalization of folate-macromolecule(More)
Folic acid was covalently conjugated to 66-nm liposomes via spacers of various lengths in an attempt to target the liposomes to KB cells expressing folate receptors. Spacers of short and intermediate lengths were unable to mediate association of folate-conjugated liposomes with receptor-bearing cells, however, use of a 250 A polyethyleneglycol spacer (PEG,(More)