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BACKGROUND Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity(More)
Developmental toxicity risk assessment currently relies on the estimation of reference doses (RfDDTS) of reference concentrations (RfCDTS) based on the use of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELS) divided by uncertainty factors (UFs). The benchmark dose (BMD) has been proposed as an alternative basis for reference value calculations. A large database(More)
The hypothesis that hormonally active compounds in the environment--endocrine disrupters--are having a significant impact on human and ecological health has captured the public's attention like no other toxicity concern since the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring 1962. In the early 1990s, Theo Colborn and others began to synthesize information(More)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS), and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources toward chemicals that likely represent the greatest hazard to human health and the environment. This(More)
BACKGROUND In 2008, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Computational Toxicology, and the National Human Genome Research Institute/National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center entered into an agreement on "high throughput screening,(More)
High-throughput in vitro toxicity screening can provide an efficient way to identify potential biological targets for chemicals. However, relying on nominal assay concentrations may misrepresent potential in vivo effects of these chemicals due to differences in bioavailability, clearance, and exposure. Hepatic metabolic clearance and plasma protein binding(More)
As the primary source for regulatory developmental toxicity information, prenatal studies characterize maternal effects and fetal endpoints including malformations, resorptions, and fetal weight reduction. Results from 383 rat and 368 rabbit prenatal studies on 387 chemicals, mostly pesticides, were entered into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's(More)
As part of the validation of an integrated bioassay for systemic toxicity, neurotoxicity, and developmental toxicity, we evaluated the effects of four pesticides, four chlorinated solvents, and two other industrial chemicals in Fischer 344 rats. The pesticides included carbaryl, triadimefon, chlordane, and heptachlor; the solvents included dichloromethane(More)
The purpose of the Benchmark Dose Workshop was to assess the feasibility and implications of replacing the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) with a benchmark dose (BMD) when deriving reference doses and concentrations (RfDs and RfCs). The workshop participants supported the use of the BMD method to remove many of the limitations inherent in using the(More)
BACKGROUND The prioritization of chemicals for toxicity testing is a primary goal of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast™ program. Phase I of ToxCast used a battery of 467 in vitro, high-throughput screening assays to assess 309 environmental chemicals. One important mode of action leading to toxicity is endocrine disruption, and the U.S.(More)