Robert J Jaffe

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OBJECTIVES The cholinergic-adrenergic hypothesis of mania and depression states that depression is characterized by an increase in central cholinergic activity relative to noradrenergic tone. Scopolamine is a centrally acting competitive inhibitor of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site. This review seeks to find all available data investigating(More)
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an inhalant used primarily as anesthesia in dental procedures. It also has been reported as a substance of abuse among adolescents and young adults with a lifetime prevalence ranging between 2% and 15.8%. Abuse, or even occupational N2O exposure, 3,4 can cause vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) deficiency. Several case studies have also(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is known to have abuse potential, although debate regarding the toxic effects of such abuse continues. Our objective was to review the case literature and present the neurologic, psychiatric and medical consequences of N2 O abuse. METHODS A systematic literature review was completed for case reports using(More)
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