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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We previously mapped a locus for a rare familial form of PD to chromosome 1p36 (PARK6). Here we show that mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) are associated with PARK6. We have identified two homozygous mutations(More)
In the mammalian CNS, each neuron typically receives thousands of synaptic inputs from diverse classes of neurons. Synaptic transmission to the postsynaptic neuron relies on localized and transmitter-specific differentiation of the plasma membrane with postsynaptic receptor, scaffolding, and adhesion proteins accumulating in precise apposition to(More)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a crucial mediator of inflammatory pain sensitization. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of a specific glycine receptor subtype (GlyR alpha3) by PGE2-induced receptor phosphorylation underlies central inflammatory pain sensitization. We show that GlyR alpha3 is distinctly expressed in superficial layers of the spinal cord(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of dementia in people under the age of 65 in a large catchment area, and use these figures to estimate the number of younger people affected by dementia in the UK. DESIGN Epidemiological catchment area prevalence survey. SETTING The London boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea, Westminster, and Hillingdon with a total(More)
Zinc ions are concentrated in the central nervous system and regulate GABA(A) receptors, which are pivotal mediators of inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission. Zinc ions inhibit GABA(A) receptor function by an allosteric mechanism that is critically dependent on the receptor subunit composition: alphabeta subunit combinations show the highest sensitivity,(More)
Gephyrin is a multifunctional protein responsible for molybdenum cofactor synthesis and the clustering of glycine and GABA(A) receptors at inhibitory synapses. Based on the structure of its two conserved domains, G and E, gephyrin is thought to form a hexagonal lattice serving as a scaffold for accessory proteins at postsynaptic sites. However, important(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the rate of brain atrophy calculated from serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) registration as a surrogate marker of disease progression for use in clinical trials in Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Eighteen patients with mild to moderate AD and 18 age-matched normal controls underwent 2 MRI brain scans separated by a 12-month(More)
The development of the mammalian brain is dependent on extensive neuronal migration. Mutations in mice and humans that affect neuronal migration result in abnormal lamination of brain structures with associated behavioral deficits. Here, we report the identification of a hyperactive N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mouse mutant with abnormalities in the(More)
Glycine receptors (GlyRs) and specific subtypes of GABA(A) receptors are clustered at synapses by the multidomain protein gephyrin, which in turn is translocated to the cell membrane by the GDP-GTP exchange factor collybistin. We report the characterization of several new variants of collybistin, which are created by alternative splicing of exons encoding(More)
Glycine receptors exhibit a biphasic sensitivity profile in response to Zn2+-mediated modulation, with low Zn2+ concentrations potentiating (< 10 microm), and higher Zn2+ concentrations inhibiting submaximal responses to glycine. Here, a substantial 30-fold increase in sensitivity to Zn2+-mediated inhibition was apparent for the homomeric glycine receptor(More)