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The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted(More)
Estrogens are reported to have both anxiogenic and anxiolytic properties. This dichotomous neurobiological response to estrogens may be mediated by the existence of two distinct estrogen receptor (ER) systems, ERalpha and ERbeta. In brain, ERalpha plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine function, whereas ERbeta may be more important(More)
To examine mechanisms responsible for sex differences in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to stress, we studied the role of androgens in the regulation of the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) responses to foot shock and novelty stressors in gonadectomized (GDX) or intact male F344 rats. Foot shock or exposure to a(More)
The actions of androgens in both peripheral and central tissues are linked in part to their ability to specifically bind and activate androgen receptors (ARs). ARs have been well studied in the rat hypothalamus and peripheral reproductive tissues, where they are directly involved in endocrine feedback mechanisms and reproduction. Previous studies revealed(More)
During development, estrogen has a variety of effects on morphological and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons during development. We examined the effects of gonadectomy with and without estrogen replacement on the mRNA(More)
Pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone in mammals is thought to depend on repetitive and prolonged bursts of action potentials in specific neuroendocrine cells. We have previously described episodes of electrical activity in isolated gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons, but the intrinsic mechanisms underlying the generation of spike bursts(More)
Previous work in the endocrine and neuroendocrine fields has viewed the androgen receptor (AR) as a transcription factor activated by testosterone or one of its many metabolites. The bound AR acts as transcription regulatory element by binding to specific DNA response elements in target gene promoters, causing activation or repression of transcription and(More)
Dysfunctions of the brain 5-HT system are often associated with affective disorders, such as depression. The raphe nuclei target the limbic system and most forebrain areas and constitute the main source of 5-HT in the brain. All 5-HT neurons express tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), the brain specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT synthesis. Estrogen(More)
Estrogens have numerous effects on the brain, both in adulthood and during development. These actions of estrogen are mediated by two distinct estrogen receptor (ER) systems, ER alpha (ERalpha) and ER beta (ERbeta). In brain, ERalpha plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine function and behavior, however, a definitive role for ERbeta(More)
The hormonal response to stress is enhanced by oestrogen but inhibited by androgens. To determine underlying changes in activity of neuropeptide neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), we examined the effect of oestrogen and androgen treatment on restraint-induced c-fos mRNA, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) heteronuclear(More)