Robert J. Handa

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Estrogens are reported to have both anxiogenic and anxiolytic properties. This dichotomous neurobiological response to estrogens may be mediated by the existence of two distinct estrogen receptor (ER) systems, ERalpha and ERbeta. In brain, ERalpha plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine function, whereas ERbeta may be more important(More)
The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted(More)
Previous work in the endocrine and neuroendocrine fields has viewed the androgen receptor (AR) as a transcription factor activated by testosterone or one of its many metabolites. The bound AR acts as transcription regulatory element by binding to specific DNA response elements in target gene promoters, causing activation or repression of transcription and(More)
The actions of androgens in both peripheral and central tissues are linked in part to their ability to specifically bind and activate androgen receptors (ARs). ARs have been well studied in the rat hypothalamus and peripheral reproductive tissues, where they are directly involved in endocrine feedback mechanisms and reproduction. Previous studies revealed(More)
During development, estrogen has a variety of effects on morphological and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons during development. We examined the effects of gonadectomy with and without estrogen replacement on the mRNA(More)
BACKGROUND The discovery of equol in human urine more than 2 decades ago and the finding that it is bacterially derived from daidzin, an isoflavone abundant in soy foods, led to the current nutritional interest in soy foods. Equol, unlike the soy isoflavones daidzein or genistein, has a chiral center and therefore can occur as 2 distinct diastereoisomers.(More)
Dysfunctions of the brain 5-HT system are often associated with affective disorders, such as depression. The raphe nuclei target the limbic system and most forebrain areas and constitute the main source of 5-HT in the brain. All 5-HT neurons express tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), the brain specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT synthesis. Estrogen(More)
Estrogens have numerous effects on the brain, both in adulthood and during development. These actions of estrogen are mediated by two distinct estrogen receptor (ER) systems, ER alpha (ERalpha) and ER beta (ERbeta). In brain, ERalpha plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine function and behavior, however, a definitive role for ERbeta(More)
Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor (AR) are found in high levels within populations of neurons in the hypothalamus. To determine whether AR or ERbeta plays a role in regulating hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function by direct action on these neurons, we examined the effects of central implants of 17beta-estradiol (E2),(More)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates mammalian stress responses by secreting glucocorticoids. The magnitude of the response is in part determined by gender, for in response to a given stressor, circulating glucocorticoids reach higher levels in female rats than in males. This gender difference could result from estrogen regulation of the(More)