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BACKGROUND Statins lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cholesterol concentrations, and hypothesis generating analyses suggest that clinical outcomes improve in patients given statins who achieve hsCRP concentrations less than 2 mg/L in addition to LDL cholesterol less than 1.8 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL). However, the benefit of lowering both LDL(More)
Although two types of spiral ganglion cells (large type I and smaller type II) have classically been described by anatomic studies in both animal and human spiral ganglion, there is physiologic and morphologic evidence for subtypes of the large type I ganglion cell. In addition, in the animal and human, a variety of morphologic differences based on(More)
BACKGROUND It is uncertain whether high blood pressure increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE To examine the association between incident AD and blood pressure measured up to 13 years before diagnosis. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study conducted from 1982 to 1988, with blood pressure measured every 3 years in home interviews,(More)
A system for classification of iris color based on standard photographs, developed for use in a multicenter study, is described. Categories of iris color are distinguished based on predominant color (blue, gray, green, light brown, or brown) and the amount of brown or yellow pigment present in the iris. Two trained readers independently graded 339 iris(More)
The Wilcoxon signed rank test is a frequently used nonparametric test for paired data (e.g., consisting of pre- and posttreatment measurements) based on independent units of analysis. This test cannot be used for paired comparisons arising from clustered data (e.g., if paired comparisons are available for each of two eyes of an individual). To incorporate(More)
BACKGROUND In propensity score modeling, it is a standard practice to optimize the prediction of exposure status based on the covariate information. In a simulation study, we examined in what situations analyses based on various types of exposure propensity score (EPS) models using data mining techniques such as recursive partitioning (RP) and neural(More)
BACKGROUND Although animal studies have raised the possibility that prolactin-elevating dopamine antagonists used to treat psychotic disorders may initiate and promote breast cancers, epidemiologic studies in humans have been limited and inconsistent. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 52 819 women exposed and 55 289 not exposed to(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive nephropathy represents a substantial source of morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes. Increasing albuminuria is a strong predictor of progressive renal dysfunction and heightened cardiovascular risk. Early albuminuria probably reflects vascular endothelial dysfunction, which may be mediated in part by chronic inflammation. (More)
BACKGROUND Episodes of sudden uncontrollable somnolence have been reported in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) receiving dopamine agonists, including pramipexole and ropinirole, but controversy persists concerning their nature, severity, and frequency. OBJECTIVES To quantify the risk of sudden uncontrollable somnolence in patients taking specific PD(More)
Confounding can be a major source of bias in nonexperimental research. The authors recently introduced propensity score calibration (PSC), which combines propensity scores and regression calibration to address confounding by variables unobserved in the main study by using variables observed in a validation study. Here, the authors assess the performance of(More)