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The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was recorded in adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in response to clicks and tones. The typical budgerigar ABR waveform showed two prominent peaks occurring within 4 ms of the stimulus onset. As sound-pressure levels increased, ABR peak latency decreased, and peak amplitude increased for all waves while(More)
In many birds, the middle ears are connected through an air-filled interaural pathway. Sound transmission through this pathway may improve directional hearing. However, attempts to demonstrate such a mechanism have produced conflicting results. One reason is that some species of birds develop a lower static air pressure in the middle ears when(More)
The inner ear in the group of archosaurs (birds, crocodilians, and extinct dinosaurs) shows a high degree of structural similarity, enabling predictions of their function in extinct species based on relationships among similar variables in living birds. Behavioral audiograms and morphological data on the length of the auditory sensory epithelium (the(More)
Postmitotic hair-cell regeneration in the inner ear of birds provides an opportunity to study the effect of renewed auditory input on auditory perception, vocal production, and vocal learning in a vertebrate. We used behavioral conditioning to test both perception and vocal production in a small Australian parrot, the budgerigar. Results show that both(More)
Budgerigars learn their vocalizations by reference to auditory information and they retain the ability to learn new vocalizations throughout life. Auditory feedback of these vocalizations was manipulated in three experiments by training birds to produce vocalizations while wearing small earphones. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of background noise(More)
Distance or contact calls of 6 unrelated adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were recorded before and during 8 weeks of social contact. The 6 birds were housed in 2 separate groups of 3 each in adjoining cages. Birds in each cage could hear but not see the birds in the neighboring cage. At the beginning of the study, none of the birds shared(More)
Operant conditioning and a psychophysical tracking procedure were used to measure auditory thresholds for pure tones in quiet and in noise for seven species of small birds--the budgerigar, canary, cockatiel, European starling, song sparrow, swamp sparrow, and the zebra finch. Audibility curves are roughly similar among the seven birds, with the maximum(More)
Thresholds for detecting alterations in the timbre and harmonicity of complex harmonic signals were measured in zebra finches, budgerigars, and humans. The stimuli used in this experiment were designed to have particular salience for zebra finches by modeling them after natural zebra finch calls. All 3 species showed similar abilities for detecting an(More)
Animals that thrive both on land and underwater are faced with the task of interpreting stimuli in different media. This becomes a challenge to the sensory receptors in that stimuli (e.g., sound, motion) may convey the same type of information but are transmitted with different physical characteristics. We used auditory brainstem responses to examine(More)
Auditory feedback influences the development of vocalizations in songbirds and parrots; however, little is known about the development of hearing in these birds. The auditory brainstem response was used to track the development of auditory sensitivity in budgerigars from hatch to 6 weeks of age. Responses were first obtained from 1-week-old at high(More)