Robert J. Davies

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of their signaling pathway are important in the initiation of the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. The adaptor protein Mal (also known as TIRAP), encoded by TIRAP (MIM 606252), mediates downstream signaling of TLR2 and TLR4 (refs. 4–6). We report a case-control study of 6,106 individuals from the(More)
BACKGROUND Intrapleural fibrinolytic agents are used in the drainage of infected pleural-fluid collections. This use is based on small trials that did not have the statistical power to evaluate accurately important clinical outcomes, including safety. We conducted a trial to clarify the therapeutic role of intrapleural streptokinase. METHODS In this(More)
BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with raised blood pressure. If blood pressure can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), such treatment could reduce risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Our aim was to see whether nCPAP for sleep apnoea reduces blood pressure compared with the(More)
BACKGROUND Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is widely used as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea. However, to date there are no randomised controlled trials of this therapy against a well-matched control. We undertook a randomised prospective parallel trial of therapeutic NCPAP for obstructive sleep apnoea compared with a control(More)
Heart failure is associated with Cheyne-Stokes breathing, which fragments patients' sleep. Correction of respiratory disturbance may reduce sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness. This randomized prospective parallel trial assesses whether nocturnal-assist servoventilation improves daytime sleepiness compared with the control. A total of 30(More)
BACKGROUND More than 30% of patients with pleural infection either die or require surgery. Drainage of infected fluid is key to successful treatment, but intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy did not improve outcomes in an earlier, large, randomized trial. METHODS We conducted a blinded, 2-by-2 factorial trial in which 210 patients with pleural infection were(More)
Cephalometry is often used to assess patients with sleep apnoea but whether these measurements differ from those in non-apnoeic snorers and how they are influenced by age is not clear. Cephalometric radiographs of patients with sleep apnoea were compared with those of snorers without sleep apnoea and those of non-snorers. Fifty two snorers with suspected(More)
BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Novel circulating cardiovascular risk markers enabling a more accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk have been identified. Examination of these markers may clarify the increased risk in OSA and(More)
INTRODUCTION Pleural infection is a frequent clinical problem with an approximate annual incidence of up to 80 000 cases in the UK and USA combined. The associated mortality and morbidity is high; in the UK 20% of patients with empyema die and approximately 20% require surgery to recover within 12 months of their infection. 2 Prompt evaluation and(More)
BACKGROUND The opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci is a common cause of respiratory infection in immunocompromised patients. By contrast, pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) occurs only rarely in immunocompetent individuals. Asymptomatic colonisation with P jiroveci has recently been described in patients who are either minimally immunosuppressed or who(More)