Robert J Cowie

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1. These studies were initiated to understand the neural sites and mechanisms controlling head movements during gaze shifts. Gaze shifts are made by saccadic eye movements with and without head movements. Sites were stimulated electrically within the brain stem of awake, trained monkeys relatively free to make head movements to study the head-movement(More)
Major national and international critiques of the medical curriculum in the 1980s noted the following significant flaws: (1) over-reliance on learning by rote memory, (2) insufficient exercise in analysis and synthesis/conceptualization, and (3) failure to connect the basic and clinical aspects of training. It was argued that the invention of computers and(More)
1. In the companion article, a variety of head movements were elicited by stimulation in, and adjacent to, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Cowie and Robinson 1994). We refer to this area, caudal to the abducens nucleus, as the gigantocellular head movement region. In the present paper, the anatomical connections of this region, as determined by(More)
The vertebrate dorsal mesencephalon consists of the superior colliculus, the dorsal portion of the periaqueductal gray, and the mesencephalic trigeminal neurons in between. These structures, via their descending pathways, take part in various behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. This study was undertaken to compare the origins and trajectories of(More)
Based on biomechanic and electromyographic studies, it has been argued that the two heads of the human lateral pterygoid muscle (LPt) are reciprocally active during the masticatory cycle. Thus, it has been proposed that the heads be considered separate muscles. However, questions about the accuracy of these data have arisen. The authors hypothesized that(More)
To determine whether pulmonary hypertension (PH) can occur in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in the absence of lung or primary cardiac disease, we studied 27 patients (26 males, mean age 49 +/- 10 yr) with OSAS (respiratory disturbance index [RDI] > 10 events/h) in whom clinically significant lung or cardiac diseases were excluded. Pulsed Doppler(More)
The pulvinar nucleus is a major source of input to visual cortical areas, but many important facts are still unknown concerning the organization of pulvinocortical (PC) connections and their possible interactions with other connectional systems. In order to address some of these questions, we labeled PC connections by extracellular injections of(More)
The complexity of the topographical anatomy of the infratemporal fossa (=masticator space) remains underappreciated because of limitations of the methods used to expose it; these methods are described and critiqued. The disposition of the lateral pterygoid (LPt) muscle in the masticator space obscures the anatomical relations of clinically significant(More)
Attempts were made to determine brainstem and cerebellar afferent and efferent projections of the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN) and cell group 'y' ('y') in the cat using axoplasmic tracers. Injections of HRP, WGA-HRP and [3H]amino acids were made into SVN and 'y' using two different infratentorial stereotaxic approaches. Controls were provided by(More)
Eye and head movements are strongly interconnected, because they both play an important role in accurately determining the direction of the visual field. The rostral brainstem includes two areas which contain neurons that participate in the control of both movement and position of the head and eyes. These regions are the caudal third of Field H of Forel,(More)