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Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) allows the recovery of cortical oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with evoked brain activity. NIRS is a back-reflection measurement making it very sensitive to the superficial layers of the head, i.e. the skin and the skull, where systemic interference occurs. As a result, the NIRS signal is strongly contaminated(More)
Although fecal-oral transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) via contaminated water represents a recognized mechanism for transmission within wild waterfowl populations, little is known about viral persistence in this medium. In order to provide initial data on persistence of H5 and H7 AIVs in water, we evaluated eight wild-type low-pathogenicity H5(More)
We describe the validation of an anatomical brain atlas approach to the analysis of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Using MRI data from 32 subjects, we compare the diffuse optical images of simulated cortical activation reconstructed using a registered atlas with those obtained using a subject's true anatomy. The error in localization of the simulated(More)
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) measures the functional hemodynamic response occurring at the surface of the cortex. Large pial veins are located above the surface of the cerebral cortex. Following activation, these veins exhibit oxygenation changes but their volume likely stays constant. The back-reflection geometry of the NIRS measurement renders the(More)
To examine sample size requirements and optimum allocation of effort in point count sampling of bottomland hardwood forests, we computed minimum sample sizes from variation recorded during 82 point counts (May 7-May 16, 1992) from three localities containing three habitat types across three regions of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Also, we(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is susceptible to signal artifacts caused by relative motion between NIRS optical fibers and the scalp. These artifacts can be very damaging to the utility of functional NIRS, particularly in challenging subject groups where motion can be unavoidable. A number of approaches to the removal of motion artifacts from NIRS data(More)
It has been established, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is present in a high proportion of brains of elderly normal subjects and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. It was subsequently discovered that the virus confers a strong risk of AD when in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E(More)
Motion artifacts are a significant source of noise in many functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) experiments. Despite this, there is no well-established method for their removal. Instead, functional trials of fNIRS data containing a motion artifact are often rejected completely. However, in most experimental circumstances the number of trials is(More)
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical imaging method that is used to noninvasively measure cerebral hemoglobin concentration changes induced by brain activation. Using structural guidance in fNIRS research enhances interpretation of results and facilitates making comparisons between studies. AtlasViewer is an open-source software(More)