Robert J. Collier

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Anthrax toxin consists of three nontoxic proteins that self-assemble at the surface of receptor-bearing mammalian cells or in solution, yielding a series of toxic complexes. Two of the proteins, called Lethal Factor (LF) and Edema Factor (EF), are enzymes that act on cytosolic substrates. The third, termed Protective Antigen (PA), is a multifunctional(More)
Protective antigen (PA) is the central component of the three-part protein toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the organism responsible for anthrax. After proteolytic activation on the host cell surface, PA forms a membrane-inserting heptamer that translocates the toxic enzymes, oedema factor and lethal factor, into the cytosol. PA, which has a relative(More)
The 14-3-3 family of proteins have recently been identified as regulatory elements in intracellular signalling pathways: 14-3-3 proteins bind to oncogene and proto-oncogene products, including c-Raf-1 (refs 2-5), c-Bcr (ref. 6) and polyomavirus middle-T antigen; overexpression of 14-3-3 activates Raf kinase in yeast and induces meiotic maturation in Xenopus(More)
The tripartite toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, helps the bacterium evade the immune system and can kill the host during a systemic infection. Two components of the toxin enzymatically modify substrates within the cytosol of mammalian cells: oedema factor (OF) is an adenylate cyclase that impairs host defences through a(More)
Dairy products are the main source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a functional food component with health benefits. The major source of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat is endogenous synthesis via delta9-desaturase from trans-11 18:1, with the remainder from incomplete rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic acid. Diet has a major influence on milk fat CLA;(More)
Physiological state of dairy animals is a predisposing factor in environmental influences on animal health. Critical phases of life cycle include neonatal period, postpubertal reproduction, and lactation. Primary effect of environment in neonatal period is increased disease incidence associated with reduced immunoglobulin content in plasma of calves. Cold(More)
After binding to cellular receptors and proteolytic activation, the protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms a heptameric prepore. The prepore later undergoes pH-dependent conversion to a pore, mediating translocation of the edema and lethal factors to the cytosol. We describe structures of the prepore (3.6 A) and a prepore:receptor complex (4.3(More)
For an evaluation of the effects of heat stress during pregnancy on calf birth weight and postpartum maternal milk yield, 21 cows and 10 heifers were assigned to shade (S; n = 16) or no shade (NS; n = 15) treatments during the last trimester of pregnancy in June 1978. At parturition, all cows were removed from treatment and uniformly managed in the milking(More)
The three separate proteins that make up anthrax toxin--protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF)--act in binary combinations to produce two distinct reactions in experimental animals: edema (PA + EF) and death (PA + LF). PA is believed to interact with a membrane receptor, and after proteolytic processing, to mediate endocytosis(More)
It has long been known that season of the year has major impacts on dairy animal performance measures including growth, reproduction, and lactation. Additionally, as average production per cow has doubled, the metabolic heat output per animal has increased substantially rendering animals more susceptible to heat stress. This, in turn, has altered cooling(More)