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Techniques traditionally used in developmental research with infants have been widely used with nonhuman primates in the investigation of comparative cognitive abilities. Recently, researchers have shown that human infants and monkeys select the larger of two numerosities in a spontaneous forced-choice discrimination task. Here we adopt the same method to(More)
The realization of a cavity soliton laser using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor gain structure coupled to an external cavity with a frequency-selective element is reported. All-optical control of bistable solitonic emission states representing small microlasers is demonstrated by injection of an external beam. The control scheme is phase(More)
We report on a simple method with a high spectral and spatial resolution for mapping variations in the cavity resonance of a plano-planar broad-area laser based on frequency-selective feedback. The demonstration experiment uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VCSEL), in which growth induced inhomogeneities are of particular importance. It relies(More)
We investigate the spatial structure of broad-area vertical-cavity regenerative amplifiers injected with a homogeneous beam. The emerging patterns have a predominantly sixfold rotational symmetry, verifying the recent prediction of formation of hexagons. The length scale is controllable by means of detuning and follows the prediction for tilted waves.
A method for the localization, the quantification, and the analysis of hydrophobicity of a molecule or a molecular fragment is presented. It is shown that the free energy of solvation for a molecule or the transfer free energy from one solvent to another can be represented by a surface integral of a scalar quantity, the molecular free energy surface density(More)
The switching behavior of a semiconductor cavity soliton laser is experimentally investigated, based on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with frequency-selective feedback. In particular, we show the effect of frequency detuning between cavity solitons and the external injection, the temporal dynamics during ignition and erasure, and characterize the(More)
We derive a new model for the established concept of the molecular free energy surface density (MolFESD) yielding a more rigorous representation of local surface contributions to the overall hydrophobicity of a molecule. The model parametrization makes efficient use of both local and global information about solvation thermodynamics, as formulated earlier(More)
Diffraction analysis of minerals from iron meteorites indicates a pronounced shock-induced alteration in the minerals' crystallographic character. The extent of alteration seems to be dependent on the degree of shock and can therefore serve as a measure of shock intensity. The changes appear to be due to the minerals' direct recrystallization during passage(More)
Absorption measurements above the K edges of the low-Z atoms, C, N, O, and F, are discussed, which utilize 250-1000-eV synchrotron radiation. The paper emphasizes experimental procedures of soft x-ray absorption and extended absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements as well as applications and future prospects of such studies. In particular, we discuss(More)