Robert Ian Nicholson

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We have examined basal and luminal cell cytokeratin expression in 1944 cases of invasive breast carcinoma, using tissue microarray (TMA) technology, to determine the frequency of expression of each cytokeratin subtype, their relationships and prognostic relevance, if any. Expression was determined by immunocytochemistry staining using antibodies to the(More)
The development of acquired resistance to antihormonal agents in breast cancer is a major therapeutic problem. We have developed a tamoxifen-resistant (TAM-R) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to investigate the mechanisms behind this condition. Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erbB2 mRNA and protein expression were increased in TAM-R compared(More)
Elevated levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a growth-factor-receptor tyrosine kinase, and/or its cognate ligands have been identified as a common component of multiple cancer types and appear to promote solid tumour growth. This article examines the relationship between EGFR expression and cancer prognosis based on literature compiled on(More)
PURPOSE Response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlates with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. It is usually easier to decide treatment strategies in cases of double-positive/-negative phenotypes than in single-positive tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS We have examined a large and well-characterized series of primary(More)
UNLABELLED Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) comprises approximately 5-15% of breast cancers and appears to have a distinct biology. It is less common than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and few large studies have addressed its biologic characteristics and behaviour with respect to long-term clinical outcome and response to adjuvant therapy. METHODS This(More)
Crosstalk between the oestrogen receptor (ER) and ERBB2/HER-2 pathways has long been implicated in breast cancer aetiology and drug response, yet no direct connection at a transcriptional level has been shown. Here we show that oestrogen-ER and tamoxifen-ER complexes directly repress ERBB2 transcription by means of a cis-regulatory element within the ERBB2(More)
This paper describes the establishment of an antiestrogen-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cell subline (FASMCF) by continuous culture of the estrogen-responsive parental line in steroid-depleted, ICI 182,780 (Faslodex; 10(-7) M)-supplemented medium. After a 3-month period of growth suppression, cells began to proliferate in ICI 182,780 at rates similar to(More)
Oestrogen receptor (ER) levels are usually maintained on acquisition of tamoxifen resistance in the clinic, however, tumour re-growth is associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In the present study we have used the ER down-regulator fulvestrant(More)
De novo and acquired resistance to the anti-tumour drug gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa), a specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has been reported. We have determined whether signalling through the IGF-I receptor (IGF-1R) pathway plays a role in the gefitinib-acquired resistance phenotype. Continuous exposure of(More)
We have conducted a clinical trial of a novel pure antiestrogen, 7 alpha-[9-(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentylsulfinyl)nonyl]estra-1,3,5,(1 0)-triene-3,17 beta-diol (ICI 182780), to assess its tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and short term biological effects in women with primary breast cancer. Fifty-six patients were randomized to either a control group (n = 19),(More)