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—Many safety-critical embedded systems are subject to certification requirements. However, only a subset of the functionality of the system may be safety-critical and hence subject to certification; the rest of the functionality is non safety-critical and does not need to be certified, or is certified to a lower level. The resulting mixed criticality system(More)
Controller Area Network (CAN) is used extensively in automotive applications, with in excess of 400 million CAN enabled microcontrollers manufactured each year. In 1994 schedulability analysis was developed for CAN, showing how worst-case response times of CAN messages could be calculated and hence guarantees provided that message response times would not(More)
This survey covers hard real-time scheduling algorithms and schedulability analysis techniques for homogeneous multiprocessor systems. It reviews the key results in this field from its origins in the late 1960s to the latest research published in late 2009. The survey outlines fundamental results about multiprocessor real-time scheduling that hold(More)
This review covers research on the topic of mixed criticality systems that has been published since Vestal's 2007 paper. It covers the period up to and including July 2015. The review is organised into the following topics: introduction and motivation, models, single processor analysis (including job-based, hard and soft tasks, fixed priority and EDF(More)
From its roots in job-shop scheduling, research into fixed priority pre-emptive scheduling theory has progressed from the artificial constraints and simplistic assumptions used in early work to a sufficient level of maturity that it is being increasingly used in the implementation of real-time systems. It is therefore appropriate that within this special(More)
This paper is an extended version of a paper that appeared in the proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium 2009. This paper has been updated with respect to advances made in schedulability analysis, and contains a number of significant additional results. The paper addresses the problem of priority assignment in multiprocessor real-time systems(More)
Automotive embedded real-time systems such as Engine Management utilise cyclic tasks that are activated periodically based on angular rotation rather than time. As well as having variable inter-arrival times, these tasks also have deadlines and worst-case execution times that are dependent on angular velocity i.e. engine speed or rpm. Such tasks exhibit(More)