Robert I. Carr

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There are interactions between the immune and the endocrine systems. A major role for adrenal steroids in the modulation of the immune system is well documented and the immune system can apparently activate the adrenal axis at the hypothalamic and/or pituitary level. Sex steroids modify immune function and sex differences in immune function suggest that(More)
OBJECTIVE We performed a randomised trial in very preterm, small for gestational age (SGA) babies to determine if prophylaxis with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves outcomes (the PROGRAMS trial). GM-CSF was associated with improved neonatal neutrophil counts, but no change in other neonatal or 2-year outcomes. As subtle(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic sepsis is a major cause of death in preterm neonates. There are compelling theoretical reasons why treatment with haemopoietic colony-stimulating factors might reduce sepsis and improve outcomes, and as a consequence these agents have entered into use in neonatal medicine without adequate evidence. We assessed whether(More)
Community leadership and participation by gay men and men who have sex with men (MSM) have been central to the response to HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. Through a wide array of actions, engagement of MSM has been important in the protection of communities. The connection between personal and community health as drivers of health advocacy continue(More)
An object-oriented and interactive computer system is presented that integrates project-and process-Ievel planning. This system, named CIPROS, realistically models construction processes by matching resource properties with design component properties and operation durations. It uses a modular representation to create discrete-event simulation networks and(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors performed a randomised trial in very preterm small-for-gestational age (SGA) babies to determine if prophylaxis with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves outcomes (the PROGRAMS trial). Despite increased neutrophil counts following GM-CSF, the authors reported no significant difference in neonatal(More)
Naturally occurring neuronal death is widespread in the central nervous system of mammals. To date, the causes and mechanisms of such death are poorly understood. A major hypothesis is that developing neurons compete for limited amounts of trophic factor(s) released from their target centres as in the case of the peripheral nervous system and nerve growth(More)
Sensitivity to cow's whole milk investigated in six patients with the idiopathic nephrotic and an elemental diet was given. After proteinuria had decreased to less than or equal to 500 mg/24 hours on consecutive days patients were challenged with cow's milk. This resulted in the return of significant proteinuria, oedema, and decreased urine volume together(More)