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This work reports the use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance tractography to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the major white matter fasciculi within living human brain. Specifically, we applied this technique to visualize in vivo (i) the superior longitudinal (arcuate) fasciculus, (ii) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (iii) the(More)
'Brain training', or the goal of improved cognitive function through the regular use of computerized tests, is a multimillion-pound industry, yet in our view scientific evidence to support its efficacy is lacking. Modest effects have been reported in some studies of older individuals and preschool children, and video-game players outperform non-players on(More)
Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) provides a parsimonious model for stationary increments of a self-similar process parameterised by the Hurst exponent, H, and variance, sigma2. Fractional Gaussian noise with H < 0.5 demonstrates negatively autocorrelated or antipersistent behaviour; fGn with H > 0.5 demonstrates 1/f, long memory or persistent behaviour; and(More)
Persecutory (paranoid) delusions are a frequently observed clinical phenomenon. In recent years, an increasing volume of research has attempted to explain these types of beliefs in terms of psychological mechanisms. Theories have emphasized early experience, perceptual abnormalities, motivational factors, and information-processing deficits. In this article(More)
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is unique in providing information about both the structural integrity and the orientation of white matter fibers in vivo and, through "tractography", revealing the trajectories of white matter tracts. DT-MRI is therefore a promising technique for detecting differences in white matter architecture between(More)
Our objective was to develop a diffusion tensor MR imaging pulse sequence that allows whole brain coverage with isotropic resolution within a clinically acceptable time. A single-shot, cardiac-gated MR pulse sequence, optimized for measuring the diffusion tensor in human brain, was developed to provide whole-brain coverage with isotropic (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5(More)
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) has been used to examine the microstructure of individual white matter tracts, often in neuropsychiatric conditions without identifiable focal pathology. However, the voxel-based group-mapping and region-of-interest (ROI) approaches used to analyse the data have inherent conceptual and practical(More)
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has been used to analyze diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) data in a number of studies. In VBM, following spatial normalization, data are smoothed to improve the validity of statistical inferences and to reduce inter-individual variation. However, the size of the smoothing filter used for VBM of DT-MRI data is highly variable(More)
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) has previously been used to investigate white matter tracts in schizophrenia, with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to use a novel method for tract-specific measurements of fronto-temporal fasciculi in early-onset schizophrenia. We hypothesized that by making tract-specific measurements,(More)
OBJECTIVE Cognitive models propose that the symptoms and psychological impairments associated with schizophrenia arise as a consequence of impaired communication between brain regions, especially the prefrontal cortex and the temporal and parietal lobes. Functional imaging and electrophysiological data have provided evidence of functional dysconnectivity,(More)