Robert Howard

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This work reports the use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance tractography to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the major white matter fasciculi within living human brain. Specifically, we applied this technique to visualize in vivo (i) the superior longitudinal (arcuate) fasciculus, (ii) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (iii) the(More)
This paper concerns the spatial and intensity transformations that are required to adjust for the confounding effects of subject movement during functional MRI (fMRI) activation studies. An approach is presented that models, and removes, movement-related artifacts from fMRI time-series. This approach is predicated on the observation that movement-related(More)
Two questions arising in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired during periodic sensory stimulation are: i) how to measure the experimentally determined effect in fMRI time series; and ii) how to decide whether an apparent effect is significant. Our approach is first to fit a time series regression model, including sine(More)
We report a novel method to identify brain regions generically activated by periodic experimental design in functional magnetic resonance imaging data. This involves: 1) registering each of N individual functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets in a standard space; 2) computing the median standardised power of response to the experimental design; 3)(More)
Persecutory (paranoid) delusions are a frequently observed clinical phenomenon. In recent years, an increasing volume of research has attempted to explain these types of beliefs in terms of psychological mechanisms. Theories have emphasized early experience, perceptual abnormalities, motivational factors, and information-processing deficits. In this article(More)
'Brain training', or the goal of improved cognitive function through the regular use of computerized tests, is a multimillion-pound industry, yet in our view scientific evidence to support its efficacy is lacking. Modest effects have been reported in some studies of older individuals and preschool children, and video-game players outperform non-players on(More)
In tomato, Ve is implicated in race-specific resistance to infection by Verticillium species causing crop disease. Characterization of the Ve locus involved positional cloning and isolation of two closely linked inverted genes. Expression of individual Ve genes in susceptible potato plants conferred resistance to an aggressive race 1 isolate of Verticillium(More)
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) has previously been used to investigate white matter tracts in schizophrenia, with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to use a novel method for tract-specific measurements of fronto-temporal fasciculi in early-onset schizophrenia. We hypothesized that by making tract-specific measurements,(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors investigated, by whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the neural substrate underlying processing of emotion-related meanings. METHOD Six healthy subjects underwent functional MRI while viewing 1) alternating blocks of pairs of pictures and captions evoking negative feelings and the same materials irrelevantly(More)
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has been used to analyze diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) data in a number of studies. In VBM, following spatial normalization, data are smoothed to improve the validity of statistical inferences and to reduce inter-individual variation. However, the size of the smoothing filter used for VBM of DT-MRI data is highly variable(More)