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The White Bear Suppression Inventory [WBSI; Wegner, D.M. & Zanakos, S. (1994), Journal of Personality, 62, 615-640] is a self-report questionnaire measuring people's general tendency to suppress unwanted negative thoughts. The current article describes two studies investigating the reliability, factor structure, validity, and correlates of the WBSI. Study 1(More)
This article describes a first attempt to investigate the reliability and validity of the TOM test, a new instrument for assessing theory of mind ability in normal children and children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). In Study 1, TOM test scores of normal children (n = 70) correlated positively with their performance on other theory of mind(More)
The present study investigated the relationship between deductive reasoning and phobic fear. In the first experiment, we succesfully evaluated a reasoning paradigm that was specifically designed to index interference effects of prior beliefs. Forty-two female undergraduates were presented with a series of syllogisms varying in believability and logical(More)
OBJECTIVE The more people retrieve childhood memories, the less favourably they evaluate their own memory. It has been argued that this might play a role in self-reports of amnesia. However, a limitation of previous studies addressing this phenomenon is that participants' judgments about their memory were based on a single item. DESIGN Students were(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between defense styles, personality traits, and psychopathological symptoms in nonclinical youths. A large sample of adolescents (n = 437) completed the Defense Style Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Junior version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and a scale measuring symptoms of(More)
In their study, Kassin and Kiechel (1996) falsely accused students of causing a computer crash and found that 69% of them were willing to sign a false confession, 28% internalized guilt, and 9% confabulated details to support their false beliefs. The authors interpreted these results to mean that false confessions can be easily elicited. However, in their(More)
The present study examined developmental patterns in children's interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms and emotional reasoning (i.e., the tendency to infer danger on the basis of physical response information). A sample of 171 children aged between 4 and 13 years were interviewed after listening to a number of vignettes in which the presence(More)
Imagination inflation refers to the phenomenon that imagining a low probability childhood event promotes subjective confidence that the event actually happened. The present article describes two studies that addressed the issue of whether imagination inflation is related to certain personality characteristics (i.e. social desirability, imagery ability, and(More)
The current study examined the role of thought suppression in spider phobia. Spider phobic (n = 41) and non-phobic (n = 40) subjects were asked to monitor their thoughts for three 5 min periods. During the first period, all subjects were instructed to "think about anything". During the second period, half of the subjects received suppression instructions(More)
Numerous studies claim to have shown that false memories can be easily created in the laboratory. However, a critical analysis of the methods employed in these studies indicates that many of them do not address memory in the strict sense of the word. Instead, some of these studies assess the confidence that participants have in a fictitious (childhood)(More)