Robert Hirschfeld

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CONTEXT There is growing recognition that bipolar disorder (BPD) has a spectrum of expression that is substantially more common than the 1% BP-I prevalence traditionally found in population surveys. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence, correlates, and treatment patterns of bipolar spectrum disorder in the US population. DESIGN Direct interviews. (More)
Context-dependent behavior is becoming increasingly important for a wide range of application domains, from pervasive computing to common business applications. Unfortunately, mainstream programming languages do not provide mechanisms that enable software entities to adapt their behavior dynamically to the current execution context. This leads developers to(More)
OBJECTIVE Bipolar spectrum disorders, which include bipolar I, bipolar II, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, frequently go unrecognized, undiagnosed, and untreated. This report describes the validation of a new brief self-report screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorders called the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. METHOD A total of 198(More)
ContextL is an extension to the Common Lisp Object System that allows for Context-oriented Programming. It provides means to associate partial class and method definitions with <i>layers</i> and to activate and deactivate such layers in the control flow of a running program. When a layer is activated, the partial definitions become part of the program until(More)
Until recently it was believed that no more than 1% of the general population has bipolar disorder. Emerging transatlantic data are beginning to provide converging evidence for a higher prevalence of up to at least 5%. Manic states, even those with mood-incongruent features, as well as mixed (dysphoric) mania, are now formally included in both ICD-10 and(More)
AspectS is an approach to general-purpose aspect-oriented programming in the Squeak/Smalltalk environment. Based on concepts of AspectJ it extends the Smalltalk metaobject protocol to accommodate the aspect modularity mechanism. In contrast to systems like AspectJ, weaving and unweaving in AspectS happens dynamically at runtime, on-demand, employing(More)
BACKGROUND Our goal was to estimate the rate of positive screens for bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population of the United States. METHOD The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), a validated screening instrument for bipolar I and II disorders, was sent to a sample of 127,800 people selected to represent the U.S. adult population by(More)
Members of the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association who have bipolar disorder were surveyed. 59% of respondents had their first symptoms during childhood or adolescence. Long delays between symptom onset, treatment-seeking, and receipt of a bipolar diagnosis were common. 45% of respondents currently experience frequent recurrences.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the experience of selected individuals living with bipolar disorder and compare this experience with that of a similar group of individuals sampled in 1992. METHOD In June 2000, 4192 self-administered questionnaires were sent to National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association chapters for distribution to support group participants(More)
OBJECTIVE Research on the workplace costs of mood disorders has focused largely on major depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder has been overlooked both because of the failure to distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and by the failure to evaluate the workplace costs of mania/hypomania. METHOD The National Comorbidity Survey(More)