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Methanogenesis, the biological production of methane, plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle and contributes significantly to global warming. The majority of methane in nature is derived from acetate. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an acetate-utilizing methanogen, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. Methanosarcineae are the most(More)
Two putative malate dehydrogenase genes, MJ1425 and MJ0490, from Methanococcus jannaschii and one from Methanothermus fervidus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and their gene products were tested for the ability to catalyze pyridine nucleotide-dependent oxidation and reduction reactions of the following alpha-hydroxy-alpha-keto acid pairs:(More)
The rhabdoms of the larval ocelli of the mosquito Aedes aegypti undergo morphological light and dark adaptation over periods of hours. The rhabdom enlarges during dark adaptation and grows smaller during light adaptation. Diminution is exponential, enlargement linear, and rates of change are proportional to log light intensity. Rhabdoms maintained at a(More)
The riboflavin kinase in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii has been identified as the product of the MJ0056 gene. Recombinant expression of the MJ0056 gene in Escherichia coli led to a large increase in the amount of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the E. coli cell extract. The unexpected features of the purified recombinant enzyme were its use of CTP as the(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to perform de novo biosynthesis of purines is present in organisms in all three domains of life, reflecting the essentiality of these molecules to life. Although the pathway is quite similar in eukaryotes and bacteria, the archaeal pathway is more variable. A careful manual curation of genes in this pathway demonstrates the value of(More)
C-1 carriers are essential cofactors in all domains of life, and in Archaea, these can be derivatives of tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)-MPT) or tetrahydrofolate (H(4)-folate). Their synthesis requires 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin diphosphate (6-HMDP) as the precursor, but the nature of pathways that lead to its formation were unknown until the recent(More)
UNLABELLED The motile-to-sessile transition is an important lifestyle switch in diverse bacteria and is often regulated by the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). In general, high c-di-GMP concentrations promote attachment to surfaces, whereas cells with low levels of signal remain motile. In the plant pathogen(More)
Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (10% by weight) at different levels of wood flour (WF) content, 40, 50, or 60 wt%, were investigated. The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP), and fire retardant (FR) powders with maleic(More)
The worldwide movement toward performance-based building codes is prompting the need for new computational methods to predict fire endurance of wood assemblies. Progress in the past twenty years in understanding fire endurance of individual solid wood components has been achieved in many different countries. The greatest opportunity for major advance in(More)