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The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human(More)
The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatic sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic. These classes contain all 156 known transcription units, which include 78(More)
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the body wall muscles exert their force on the cuticle to generate locomotion. Interposed between the muscle cells and the cuticle are a basement membrane and a thin hypodermal cell. The latter contains bundles of filaments attached to dense plaques in the hypodermal cell membranes, which together we have called a(More)
The body wall muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans contain an obliquely striated myofibrillar lattice that is associated with the cell membrane through two structures: an M-line analogue in the A-band and a Z-disc analogue, or dense-body, in the I-band. By using a fraction enriched in these structures as an immunogen for hybridoma production, we prepared(More)
By taking advantage of a lethal phenotype characteristic of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos that fail to move, we have identified 13 genes required for muscle assembly and function and discovered a new lethal class of alleles for three previously known muscle-affecting genes. By staining mutant embryos for myosin and actin we have recognized five distinct(More)
The soil nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis elegans diverged from a common ancestor roughly 100 million years ago and yet are almost indistinguishable by eye. They have the same chromosome number and genome sizes, and they occupy the same ecological niche. To explore the basis for this striking conservation of structure and function, we(More)
The sifting and winnowing of DNA sequence that occur during evolution cause nonfunctional sequences to diverge, leaving phylogenetic footprints of functional sequence elements in comparisons of genome sequences. We searched for such footprints among the genome sequences of six Saccharomyces species and identified potentially functional sequences. Comparison(More)
In yeast, actin forms patches associated with the plasma membrane. Patch distribution correlates with polarized growth during the cell cycle and in response to external stimuli. Using green fluorescent protein fused to capping protein to image actin patches in living cells, we find that patches move rapidly and over long distances. Even patches in clusters,(More)
Gene expression in a developmentally arrested, long-lived dauer population of Caenorhabditis elegans was compared with a nondauer (mixed-stage) population by using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Dauer (152,314) and nondauer (148,324) SAGE tags identified 11,130 of the predicted 19,100 C. elegans genes. Genes implicated previously in longevity(More)
Deletions of the AZFc (azoospermia factor c) region of the Y chromosome are the most common known cause of spermatogenic failure. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of AZFc by identifying and distinguishing between near-identical amplicons (massive repeat units) using an iterative mapping-sequencing process. A complex of three palindromes, the(More)