Robert H. Shoemaker

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The US National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen (NCI60) was developed in the late 1980s as an in vitro drug-discovery tool intended to supplant the use of transplantable animal tumours in anticancer drug screening. This screening model was rapidly recognized as a rich source of information about the mechanisms of(More)
We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpanels representing leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, colon, kidney, ovary, and central nervous system. The ultimate goal of this disease-oriented screen is to facilitate the(More)
We have isolated and sequenced a novel 11-kDa virucidal protein, named cyanovirin-N (CV-N), from cultures of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Nostoc ellipsosporum. We also have produced CV-N recombinantly by expression of a corresponding DNA sequence in Escherichia coli. Low nanomolar concentrations of either natural or recombinant CV-N irreversibly(More)
For the past 30 years strategies for the preclinical discovery and development of potential anticancer agents have been based largely upon the testing of agents in mice bearing transplantable leukemias and solid tumors derived from a limited number of murine as well as human sources. The feasibility of implementing an alternate approach, namely combined in(More)
The objective of this study was to develop and investigate an approach to optimally detect, rank, display, and analyze patterns of differential growth inhibition among cultured cell lines. Such patterns of cellular responsiveness are produced by substances tested in vitro against disease-oriented panels of human tumor cell lines in a new anticancer(More)
We have previously described the application of an automated microculture tetrazolium assay (MTA) involving dimethyl sulfoxide solubilization of cellular-generated 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-formazan to the in vitro assessment of drug effects on cell growth (M.C. Alley et al., Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 27:389,(More)
The identification of small molecules that inhibit the sequence-specific binding of transcription factors to DNA is an attractive approach for regulation of gene expression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that controls genes involved in glycolysis, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion, all of which are important for tumor(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is frequently observed in colorectal cancers. Our aim was to elucidate the impact of gain-of-function beta-catenin on the metastasis-associated gene S100A4 in human colon cancer cell lines and tumors. METHODS We analyzed cell lines heterozygous for gain-of-function and wild-type beta-catenin,(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to oxygen deprivation. HIF-1 has been implicated in the regulation of genes involved in angiogenesis [e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase] and anaerobic metabolism (e.g., glycolytic enzymes). HIF-1 is essential for(More)
Hypoxia is a major pathophysiological condition for the induction of angiogenesis, which is a crucial aspect of growth in solid tumors. In mammalian cells, the transcriptional response to oxygen deprivation is largely mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer composed of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits. However, the response of(More)