Robert H. Kretsinger

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The relationships among 153 EF-hand (calcium-modulated) proteins of known amino acid sequence were determined using the method of maximum parsimony. These proteins can be ordered into 12 distinct subfamilies-calmodulin, troponin C, essential light chain of myosin, regulatory light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium binding protein, calpain,(More)
Calcium binding, which appears to be either specific or physiologically significant, has been reported for 70 norminally "different" proteins. First, I catalog these proteins. Only a few recent or general references can be cited. Those proteins that serve critical physiological functions or that may be regarded as chemical prototypes are discussed in more(More)
This review suggests that the intracellular functions of calcium are best understood in terms of calcium's functioning as a second messenger. Further, when functioning as a second messenger, calcium completes its mission not by transferring charge nor by binding to lipid but by binding to specific targets, calcium-modulated proteins. This concept is broadly(More)
Forty-five distinct subfamilies of EF-hand proteins have been identified. They contain from two to eight EF-hands that are recognizable by amino acid sequence as being statistically similar to other EF-hand domains. All proteins within one subfamily are congruent to one another, i.e. the dendrogram computed from one of the EF-hand domains is similar, within(More)
The EF-hand homolog proteins bind calcium (Ca2+) with dissociation constants in the micromolar range and are modulated by stimulus-induced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+. We have grouped over 160 different EF-hand homolog proteins into ten subfamilies and ten unique categories. Except for troponin-C, all subfamilies and unique EF-hand homologs represented(More)
Calmodulin has been purified to homogeneity using an improved procedure that allows rapid processing of several kilograms of bovine brain. A calcium-dependent change in the electrophoretic mobility of calmodulin in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been observed. Freshly prepared calmodulin or lyophilized calmodulin, stored at --80 degrees C(More)
The distribution of Ca2+ and Mg2+ among the ‘regulatory’ cation binding sites of troponin (T-sites) and the strong, Ca2+-Mg2+ binding sites of troponin and parvalbumins (P-sites) in the sarcoplasm of a muscle was calculated. At rest, 60% of the T-sites were metal free, while 92% of the P-sites were loaded with Mg2+. In response to a Ca2+ pulse,(More)
A number of human diseases have been shown to be associated with mutation in the genes encoding leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-containing proteins. They include 16 different LRR proteins. Mutations of these proteins are associated with 19 human diseases. The mutations occur frequently within the LRR domains as well as their neighboring domains, including(More)