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Hemolymph from partially fed virgin Dermacentor variabilis females was collected following Borrelia burgdorferi challenge and assayed for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and B. burgdorferi. A small inducible cationic peptide was identified by SDS-PAGE in the hemolymph of these ticks as early as 1h post challenge. Following purification by a(More)
The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, transmits the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, whereas the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), is unable to transmit the bacterium. We compared the innate immune response of these ticks against spirochetes directly inoculated into the hemocoel cavity of ticks. In I. scapularis, some(More)
When Borrelia burgdorferi B31 low passage strain spirochetes were directly injected into the hemocoel of Dermacentor variabilis (Say) females, the bacteria were cleared from the hemocoel within < 24 h. Viable spirochetes were not found in hemolymph, salivary gland, or ovary tissues by subculturing or by IFA. The hemocyte population increased approximately 6(More)
The ability of hard ticks to prevent infection by bacteria was investigated. During a 72-h period, virtually all Dermacentor variabilis females survived inoculation with Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphyloccocus aureus but few survived infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The hemocyte population increased to peak abundance at 48 h to(More)
OBJECTIVES Diabetes is a serious health problem. It has been proposed that islet neogenesis from pancreatic progenitor cells may restore insulin secretion in diabetic mammals. Islet neogenesis- associated protein (INGAP) stimulates islet neogenesis; therefore, we hypothesized that it would stimulate islet neogenesis in dogs. METHODS Forty nondiabetic(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi B31 cultured at 28 degrees C was used to assay the effects of tick hemolymph on outer surface protein C (OspC) surface expression. Using immunofluorescence, OspC surface expression was shown to increase in cultures treated with hemolymph from both Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor variabilis, while control samples (non-hemolymph(More)
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